Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
by Magdalena de Passe, or by Willem de Passe Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, 1620
6 3/8 in. x 4 5/8 in. (161 mm x 119 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Magdalena de Passe (1600-1638), Engraver. Artist associated with 136 portraits, Sitter in 2 portraits.
- Willem de Passe (1597 or 1598-1636 or 1637), Engraver. Artist associated with 174 portraits.
- NPG D20935: Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury (from same plate)
The beginning of a severe economic depression in England is widely blamed on the East India Company whose export of bullion on each voyage financed their trade. Additionally, despite efforts by Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, to reduce the royal household's expenditure, James I's debt is historically high.
Art and science
Francis Bacon publishes his major philosophical work Novum Organum
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The Catholic League's invasion of Bohemia and victory at the battle of the White Mountain, forces Frederick V, king of Bohemia and his family into exile in the Hague, after less than a year reigning.The Pilgrim Fathers sail for America in the 'Mayflower', escaping religious persecution in England.