© National Portrait Gallery, London
'Philosophers of the last Century' (John Mayow; John Evelyn)
by James Caldwall, published by Robert John Thornton Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving and etching, published 20 December 1800
18 3/4 in. x 12 7/8 in. (475 mm x 328 mm) paper size
acquired unknown source, 1964
- John Evelyn (1620-1706), Diarist and virtuoso. Sitter associated with 13 portraits, Artist associated with 2 portraits.
- John Mayow (1643-1679), Physiologist and chemist. Sitter in 4 portraits.
- James Caldwall (1739-1822), Engraver. Artist associated with 65 portraits.
- Robert John Thornton (1768-1837), Physician, writer on botany and publisher. Artist associated with 48 portraits, Sitter in 2 portraits.
Widespread food riots after poor harvests of 1798-9. Theorist, Thomas Malthus, controversially argues that poverty and food shortages are an inevitable consequence of population growth, challenging assumptions that populousness was a sign of national prosperity and power. His thesis contributed forcefully to the debate over the existing Poor Law.
Art and science
William Wordsworth publishes his Preface
to the Lyrical Ballads
; a retrospective explanation of his experimental poems written with Samuel Taylor Coleridge. It becomes one of the best-known manifestos of Romantic literature.
Lord Castlereagh, Chief Secretary for Ireland, is the main architect of the Act of Union under which Ireland is merged with Great Britain and the Irish parliament is abolished.British troops support successful uprising by Maltese against the French.Napoleon is victorious against Austrians at Marengo and reconquers Italy.