© National Portrait Gallery, London
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence; Queen Alexandra
by Basebe & Son, after Unknown engraver Click on the links below to find out more
albumen carte-de-visite, circa 1864
3 in. x 2 1/8 in. (75 mm x 54 mm) image size
Given by Jane Souter Hipkins, 1930
First of the Contagious Diseases Act. These acts allowed for the arrest, medical inspection and confinement of any woman suspected of being a prostitute in the port towns. Following huge public outcry over their discrimination against women, notably led by Josephine Butler, leader of the Ladies' National Association, the acts were eventually repealed.Octavia Hill starts work on slums, and the International Working Men's Association is founded in London.
Art and science
The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell presents his discoveries in the field of electromagnetics to the Royal Society. His paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field
expresses the basic laws of electricity and magnetism in unified fashion. Maxwell's equations, as his rules came to be known, helped create modern physics, laying the foundation for future work in special relativity and quantum mechanics.
Austria and Prussia combine forces to seize Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. Britain cedes Corfu, acquired from France in the Second Treaty of Paris (1815) to Greece. Although Britain had vigorously suppressed an uprising in 1849 in Cephalonia aiming to restore Iolian islands, the government changed policy throughout the 1850s and 60s.