© National Portrait Gallery, London
John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll
by Hayman Seleg Mendelssohn Click on the links below to find out more
albumen carte-de-visite, 1907
5 5/8 in. x 3 7/8 in. (144 mm x 100 mm) image size
Given by Marion Harry Spielmann, 1939
Robert Baden Powell, a former lieutenant-general in the British Army, forms the Boy Scout Movement after holding a camp on Brownsea Island for a group of twenty-two boys of mixed social background. Baden Powell was inspired after finding that his 1903 military training manual Aids to Scouting
had become a bestseller, and was being used by teachers and youth workers. The Scout movement has become a Worldwide phenomenon, with over 38 million members in 216 countries.
Art and science
The poet, author and critic Edmund Gosse publishes his autobiography Father and Son
, an account of his relationship with his devout Christian father, the zoologist Phillip Gosse. Edmund's detailing of his loss of faith is a reflection on the Victorian age itself. Anna Pavlova first dances The Dying Swan
, choreographed by Michel Fokine to music by Camille Saint-Saens, at a charity performance.
America is gripped by a financial crisis as a collapse of trust companies causes panic amongst shareholders. Aged twenty, the Swiss architect Le Corbusier, one of the most influential figures in twentieth-century architecture, designs his first house at La Chaux-de-Fonds in Switzerland.