© National Portrait Gallery, London
Frontispiece to Henry Tresham's 'Britannicus to Buonaparte: an Heroic Epistle' (Napoléon Bonaparte)
by James Gillray, published by John Hatchard, after Henry Tresham Click on the links below to find out more
hand-coloured etching, published 1 November 1803
9 7/8 in. x 6 7/8 in. (251 mm x 174 mm) paper size
- Napoléon Bonaparte (1769-1821), Emperor of France 1804-14. Sitter associated with 86 portraits.
- James Gillray (1756-1815), Caricaturist. Artist associated with 881 portraits, Sitter in 7 portraits.
- John Hatchard (1769-1849). Artist associated with 4 portraits.
- Henry Tresham (1749?-1814), Painter. Artist associated with 1 portrait, Sitter in 1 portrait.
The Vice Society is formally established by John Reeves and his associates to campaign against blasphemy and immorality, particularly that perpetrated by Thomas Paine and the Edinburgh Review
Art and science
Erasmus Darwin's Temple of Nature
published posthumously. A scientific treaty in the form of an elaborate couplet poem, its content anticipated some of the evolutionary ideas developed by his grandson, Charles Darwin, fifty years later. Construction of the Caledonian Canal begins.
War with France resumes, sparking new fears of a cross-channel invasion.United Irishman, Robert Emmett's attempted uprising in Dublin. Planned to coincide with Napoleon's expected invasion, it aimed to overthrow the English administration but ended in failure. Emmett is hanged along with several other conspirators.