© National Portrait Gallery, London
Lady Inez Charlotte Grace Fitzgerald (née Caseberd Botelier)
by Frederick John Jenkins, after Edward Hughes Click on the links below to find out more
photogravure, 1891 or after
10 3/4 in. x 8 5/8 in. (273 mm x 218 mm) plate size; 16 in. x 12 3/8 in. (407 mm x 315 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
The Irish Nationalist leader Charles Parnell is forced to resign after being named in the divorce proceedings brought by William O'Shea against his wife Kitty, who had been Parnell's mistress for a decade. The scandal severely damages the campaign for the Home Rule Bill, contributing greatly to its subsequent failure. Parnell's health also suffered; he contracted rheumatic fever and died a few months after resigning.
Art and science
Thomas Hardy's publishes Tess of the D'Urbervilles
, a tragedy which explores the consequences of the young Tess's seduction by the wealthy Alec D'Urberville. In the novel, Hardy sets forward his major concerns about the individual's powerlessness before fate, whilst radically critiquing the hypocritical double standards of contemporary morals.
The construction of Trans-Siberian railway, the longest single rail system in Russia, begins in the Urals and at Vladivostock. Running between Moscow and Vladivostock, work was completed in 1917. The German aviation pioneer Otto Lilenthal takes off in the first glider from a hill near Potsdam, the first of many guided flights and an important step in the development of aerial technology.