© National Portrait Gallery, London
Lady Caroline Spencer (née Russell), Duchess of Marlborough
by James Scott, after Sir Joshua Reynolds Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, 1863 (circa 1776)
11 3/8 in. x 7 1/2 in. (290 mm x 189 mm) plate size; 18 1/8 in. x 11 7/8 in. (461 mm x 303 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), Painter and first President of the Royal Academy. Artist associated with 1413 portraits, Sitter associated with 38 portraits.
- James Scott (circa 1809-circa 1889), Engraver. Artist associated with 132 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
The opening of the world's first underground railway, with the Metropolitan Railway running trains between Bishop's Street, Padington and Farringdon. Work had begun in 1860, using the 'cut-and-cover' method of construction. The Metropolitan line inspired the construction of other underground railways - the Parisian 'Metro' took its name from the line. The Football Association is founded.
Art and science
Julia Margaret Cameron takes up photography, taking portraits of some of the most celebrated figures of the day, with her romantic style capturing the sense of nostalgia and longing that characterised the age. Kingsley's Water Babies; A Fairy Tale for Children
is published, the hugely popular tale of drowned chimney sweep Tom's moral education in the river world of the water babies. It inspired the 1978 film starring James Mason.
At an international conference, the Geneva Public Welfare Society calls on the sixteen nations present to form voluntary units to help the wartime wounded. The society, comprised of five Swiss citizens and led by Henri Dunant, who had been deeply affected by the casualties he had witnessed at the Battle of Solferino, became the National Red Cross Societies, adopting the emblem of a red cross on white background.