© National Portrait Gallery, London
Jane Frances Clinton Spencer-Churchill (née Stewart), Duchess of Marlborough
by Alphonse Léon Noël, printed by Lemercier, after George Sanders (Saunders) Click on the links below to find out more
lithograph, 1852 (1819)
22 3/8 in. x 15 3/4 in. (569 mm x 400 mm) paper size
acquired unknown source, 1958
- Lemercier (active 1836-1856), Lithographic printer. Artist associated with 16 portraits.
- Alphonse Léon Noël (1807-1884), Lithographer. Artist associated with 14 portraits.
- George Sanders (Saunders) (1774-1846), Portrait painter and miniaturist. Artist associated with 20 portraits.
The Peelites, a breakaway group who had supported Peel during the Corn Law reforms, join the Liberals. The Conservative Edward Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, becomes Prime Minister after Lord John Russell's Liberal administration collapses. The administration is short-lived and replaced by a new Liberal-Peelite coalition, under the leadership of former Tory George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen.
Art and science
Start of spiritualism craze in England.London physician Peter Mark Roget first publishes his thesaurus.American author Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes the hugely successful anti-slavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin
Scottish physicist William Thomson formulates the second law of thermodynamics, demonstrating that a rapidly expanding gas cools.
Independent Boer republics north of the Vaal and Orange rivers are recognised by Britain following the Sand River Convention. Later, the Bloemfontein Convention (1854) formally recognises the independence of Boer republics between the Vaal and Orange rivers, resulting in the Boer Republic of the Orange Free State. Tension escalates in Crimea as France demands that Turkey end Russia's exclusive control of the Christian Holy Places in the Ottoman empire.