© National Portrait Gallery, London
Louise de Kéroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth
by Étienne Baudet, after Henri Gascar Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, circa 1673
13 3/4 in. x 17 3/4 in. (349 mm x 450 mm) paper size
acquired unknown source, 1959
- Étienne Baudet (1638-1711), Engraver. Artist associated with 1 portrait.
- Henri Gascar (1634 or 1635-1701), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 8 portraits.
Controversially, James, Duke of York marries a Catholic, Mary of Modena, daughter of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena. Parliament passes anti-Catholic legislation, the Test Act, which excludes recusants from public office. Officials are required to take an oath and deny the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation.
Art and science
Poet laureate, John Dryden, influenced by the war against Holland, writes Amboyna
, a tragedy about the Amboyna massacre,1623, when English sailors were murdered by Dutch traders in Indonesia. The Chelsea Physic Garden is established by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries to train apprentices in plant identification.
War with Holland culminates in the Battle of Texel which effectively exhausts both sides, but results in a strategic Dutch victory. With tension mounting between the allies, lord of the Admiralty, Prince Rupert, blames the unsatisfactory outcome on French admiral d'Estrees, and poor provisions.