© National Portrait Gallery, London
Elizabeth Godden (née Houghton), Lady Taylor
by Frederick Bromley, published by Henry Graves & Co, after Sir Joshua Reynolds Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint and etching, published 1862 (circa 1775)
9 1/2 in. x 7 in. (242 mm x 179 mm) plate size; 19 in. x 12 7/8 in. (483 mm x 326 mm) paper size
acquired unknown source, 1975
- Frederick Bromley (active 1832-1870), Engraver. Artist associated with 26 portraits.
- Henry Graves & Co (active 1844-1899), Publishers. Artist associated with 228 portraits.
- Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), Painter and first President of the Royal Academy. Artist associated with 1413 portraits, Sitter associated with 38 portraits.
- NPG D40848: Elizabeth Godden (née Houghton), Lady Taylor (from same plate)
- NPG D41837: Elizabeth Godden (née Houghton), Lady Taylor (from same plate)
The Lancashire cotton famine, a depression in the north-west textile industry brought about by the American civil war, reaches its climax. With large numbers of mills closing after Confederate blockades halted cotton supplies, many Lancashire families were in receipt of relief.
Art and science
Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard carry out the first pasteurisation tests, the process of heating liquids at 55 degree Celsius or higher for short periods of time, destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria and yeast. .Victor Hugo's novel Les Miserables
is published, covering the Napoleonic wars. It traces the ex-convict Jean Valjean's character against wider questions of social and political justice, duty and love.
Otto Eduard Leopold Bismarck becomes Minister-President of Prussia, appointed by Wilhelm I after the liberal Diet refused to authorise funding for a proposed reorganisation of the army. Bismarck, intent on maintaining royal supremacy, engineers the Unification of Germany during his time in office.John Hanning Speke claims to have found the source of the Nile, proving that the Victoria Nile issued from the north end of lake Victoria, over Ripon Falls.