© National Portrait Gallery, London
James III of Scotland
by Richard Gaywood Click on the links below to find out more
etching, circa 1655
5 3/4 in. x 4 in. (145 mm x 101 mm) plate size; 6 1/8 in. x 4 3/8 in. (156 mm x 111 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
Secretary of State, John Thurloe, implements a highly efficient intelligence service and thwarts plans for a series of royalist uprisings which produced only Penruddock's revolt. Following ineffectual royalist riots, Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell, appoints nineteen Major-generals to manage regional government and prevent future challenges to the protectorate.
Art and science
Publication of the controversial work De corpore
, by philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, prompts mathematician, John Wallis to scornfully refute the work in Elenchus geometriae Hobbianae
, starting a bitter, long-running polemical dispute between the two men.
General Robert Venables and Admiral William Penn lead an expedition to the Caribbean to threaten Spanish trade routes and weaken Catholic influence in the New World. An integral part of Cromwell's foreign policy to curb Spanish power, the campaign, Cromwell's 'western design', fails leading to war in Europe.