The Primitive Reformers

1 portrait of Pietro Vermigli

The Primitive Reformers, by Unknown artist, 17th century - NPG D42454 - © National Portrait Gallery, London

© National Portrait Gallery, London

The Primitive Reformers

by Unknown artist
etching, 17th century
3 1/2 in. x 12 1/2 in. (89 mm x 317 mm) paper size
Given by Westminster Public Libraries, 1954
Reference Collection
NPG D42454


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Artistback to top

Sittersback to top

  • Jacobus Arminius (Jacob Hermans (Harmans)) (1560-1609), Dutch Reformed theologian. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • Theodorus Beza (de Bèze) (1519-1605), French reformer. Sitter associated with 5 portraits.
  • Robert Bolton (1572-1631), Puritan divine. Sitter associated with 9 portraits.
  • Martin Bucer (Butzer) (1491-1551), Protestant reformer. Sitter associated with 13 portraits.
  • Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575), Swiss reformer. Sitter associated with 7 portraits.
  • Johannes Buxtorf (1564-1629), Hebraist. Sitter associated with 1 portrait.
  • John Calvin (1509-1564), French theologian. Sitter associated with 5 portraits.
  • Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556), Archbishop of Canterbury. Sitter associated with 46 portraits.
  • Peter Du Moulin (1601-1684), Church of England clergyman and religious controversialist. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • Huigh De Groot (Hugo Grotius) (1583-1645), Dutch scholar. Sitter associated with 13 portraits.
  • John Hus (circa 1373-1415), Bohemian reformer. Sitter associated with 4 portraits.
  • Jerome of Prague (circa 1370-1416), Bohemian religious reformer. Sitter associated with 6 portraits.
  • John Knox (circa 1514-1572), Scottish reformer and historian. Sitter associated with 35 portraits.
  • Hugh Latimer (circa 1485-1555), Bishop of Worcester. Sitter associated with 33 portraits.
  • Martin Luther (1483-1546), German religious reformer. Sitter associated with 7 portraits.
  • Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560), German protestant reformer. Sitter associated with 5 portraits.
  • Johannes Oecolampadius (1482-1531), German religious reformer. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • William Perkins (1558-1602), Puritan divine. Sitter associated with 17 portraits.
  • Nicholas Ridley (1500-1555), Bishop of London. Sitter associated with 28 portraits.
  • St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), Philosopher and theologian. Sitter associated with 6 portraits.
  • Pietro Vermigli (1499-1562), Reformer, Theologian and known as 'Peter Martyr'. Sitter associated with 15 portraits.
  • John Wycliffe (1324?-1384), Religious reformer and theologian. Sitter associated with 21 portraits.
  • Jerome Zanchius (1516-1590), Italian Protestant Reformation clergyman. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • Ulricus Zuinglius (1487-1531). Sitter associated with 1 portrait.

Events of 1601back to top

Current affairs

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex marches on the City but the rebellion fails. He is proclaimed a traitor and executed. A Spanish fleet lands in Ireland to assist the Catholic rebellion. Lord Mountjoy leads the English army to victory over the Irish and Spanish force at the Battle of Kinsale. Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury begins secret negotiations with James VI of Scotland to secure a peaceful handover of power after the Queen's death.

Art and science

William Shakespeare writes Twelfth Night. The poet and clergyman John Donne begins The Progress of the Soul, an unfinished satire on the soul of the apple eaten by Eve. The Speaker of the House of Commons Sir Edward Phelips builds Montacute House, Somerset. Sir James Lancaster leads the first trading venture of the East India Company to acquire spices from Sumatra.

International

Spanish Hapsburg forces lay siege of the United Provinces port of Ostend. The town surrenders in 1604 after one of the longest sieges in history and bloodiest battles of the Eighty Years' War, during which the Protestant United Provinces of the northern Netherlands fought for independence from Spain. Tokugawa Ieyasu, ruler of Japan, makes his capital at Yedo (present-day Tokyo).

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