First Previous 1 OF 2 NextLast

The Primitive Reformers

1 of 2 portraits of Jacobus Arminius (Jacob Hermans (Harmans))

The Primitive Reformers, by Unknown artist, 17th century - NPG D42454 - © National Portrait Gallery, London

© National Portrait Gallery, London

The Primitive Reformers

by Unknown artist
etching, 17th century
3 1/2 in. x 12 1/2 in. (89 mm x 317 mm) paper size
Given by Westminster Public Libraries, 1954
Reference Collection
NPG D42454

Click on the links below to find out more:

Share this

Artistback to top

Sittersback to top

  • Jacobus Arminius (Jacob Hermans (Harmans)) (1560-1609), Dutch Reformed theologian. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • Theodorus Beza (de Bèze) (1519-1605), French reformer. Sitter associated with 5 portraits.
  • Robert Bolton (1572-1631), Puritan divine. Sitter associated with 9 portraits.
  • Martin Bucer (Butzer) (1491-1551), Protestant reformer. Sitter associated with 13 portraits.
  • Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575), Swiss reformer. Sitter associated with 7 portraits.
  • Johannes Buxtorf (1564-1629), Hebraist. Sitter associated with 1 portrait.
  • John Calvin (1509-1564), French theologian. Sitter associated with 5 portraits.
  • Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556), Archbishop of Canterbury. Sitter associated with 46 portraits.
  • Peter Du Moulin (1601-1684), Church of England clergyman and religious controversialist. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • Huigh De Groot (Hugo Grotius) (1583-1645), Dutch scholar. Sitter associated with 13 portraits.
  • John Hus (circa 1373-1415), Bohemian reformer. Sitter associated with 4 portraits.
  • Jerome of Prague (circa 1370-1416), Bohemian religious reformer. Sitter associated with 6 portraits.
  • John Knox (circa 1514-1572), Scottish reformer and historian. Sitter associated with 35 portraits.
  • Hugh Latimer (circa 1485-1555), Bishop of Worcester. Sitter associated with 33 portraits.
  • Martin Luther (1483-1546), German religious reformer. Sitter associated with 17 portraits.
  • Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560), German protestant reformer. Sitter associated with 5 portraits.
  • Johannes Oecolampadius (1482-1531), German religious reformer. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • William Perkins (1558-1602), Puritan divine. Sitter associated with 17 portraits.
  • Nicholas Ridley (1500-1555), Bishop of London. Sitter associated with 28 portraits.
  • St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), Philosopher and theologian. Sitter associated with 6 portraits.
  • Pietro Vermigli (1499-1562), Reformer, Theologian and known as 'Peter Martyr'. Sitter associated with 15 portraits.
  • John Wycliffe (1324?-1384), Religious reformer and theologian. Sitter associated with 21 portraits.
  • Jerome Zanchius (1516-1590), Italian Protestant Reformation clergyman. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • Ulricus Zuinglius (1487-1531), Swiss reformer. Sitter associated with 1 portrait.

Events of 1601back to top

Current affairs

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex marches on the City but the rebellion fails. He is proclaimed a traitor and executed. A Spanish fleet lands in Ireland to assist the Catholic rebellion. Lord Mountjoy leads the English army to victory over the Irish and Spanish force at the Battle of Kinsale. Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury begins secret negotiations with James VI of Scotland to secure a peaceful handover of power after the Queen's death.

Art and science

William Shakespeare writes Twelfth Night. The poet and clergyman John Donne begins The Progress of the Soul, an unfinished satire on the soul of the apple eaten by Eve. The Speaker of the House of Commons Sir Edward Phelips builds Montacute House, Somerset. Sir James Lancaster leads the first trading venture of the East India Company to acquire spices from Sumatra.


Spanish Hapsburg forces lay siege of the United Provinces port of Ostend. The town surrenders in 1604 after one of the longest sieges in history and bloodiest battles of the Eighty Years' War, during which the Protestant United Provinces of the northern Netherlands fought for independence from Spain. Tokugawa Ieyasu, ruler of Japan, makes his capital at Yedo (present-day Tokyo).

Tell us moreback to top

Can you tell us more about this portrait? Spotted an error, information that is missing (a sitter’s life dates, occupation or family relationships, or a date of portrait for example) or do you know anything that we don't know? If you have information to share please complete the form below.

If you require information from us, please use our Archive enquiry service. If you wish to license this image, please use our Rights and Images service.

Please note that we cannot provide valuations.

We digitise over 8,000 portraits a year and we cannot guarantee being able to digitise images that are not already scheduled.

What can you tell us?close

There are occasions when we are unsure of the identity of a sitter or artist, their life dates, occupation or have not recorded their family relationships. Sometimes we have not recorded the date of a portrait. Do you have specialist knowledge or a particular interest about any aspect of the portrait or sitter or artist that you can share with us? We would welcome any information that adds to and enhances our information and understanding about a particular portrait, sitter or artist.


How do you know this? Please could you let us know your source of information.

* Permission to publish (Privacy information)
Privacy Informationclose

The National Portrait Gallery will NOT use your information to contact you or store for any other purpose than to investigate or display your contribution. By ticking permission to publish you are indicating your agreement for your contribution to be shown on this collection item page. Please note your email address will not be displayed on the page nor will it be used for any marketing material or promotion of any kind.

Please ensure your comments are relevant and appropriate. Your contributions must be polite and with no intention of causing trouble. All contributions are moderated.

Your nameclose

If you tick permission to publish your name will appear above your contribution on our website.

Your Emailclose

Contributions are moderated. We'll need your email address so that we can follow up on the information provided and contact you to let you know when your contribution has been published.