The Primitive Reformers

1 portrait of Jerome of Prague

The Primitive Reformers, by Unknown artist, published 1769 - NPG D42454 - © National Portrait Gallery, London

© National Portrait Gallery, London

The Primitive Reformers

by Unknown artist
etching, published 1769
3 1/2 in. x 12 1/2 in. (89 mm x 317 mm) paper size
Given by Westminster Public Libraries, 1954
Reference Collection
NPG D42454

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Artistback to top

Sittersback to top

  • Jacobus Arminius (Jacob Hermans (Harmans)) (1560-1609), Dutch Reformed theologian. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • Theodorus Beza (de Bèze) (1519-1605), French reformer. Sitter associated with 5 portraits.
  • Robert Bolton (1572-1631), Puritan divine. Sitter associated with 9 portraits.
  • Martin Bucer (Butzer) (1491-1551), Protestant reformer. Sitter associated with 13 portraits.
  • Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575), Swiss reformer. Sitter associated with 7 portraits.
  • Johannes Buxtorf (1564-1629), Hebraist. Sitter associated with 1 portrait.
  • John Calvin (1509-1564), French theologian. Sitter associated with 5 portraits.
  • Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556), Archbishop of Canterbury. Sitter associated with 46 portraits.
  • Peter Du Moulin (1601-1684), Church of England clergyman and religious controversialist. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • Huigh De Groot (Hugo Grotius) (1583-1645), Dutch scholar. Sitter associated with 13 portraits.
  • John Hus (circa 1373-1415), Bohemian reformer. Sitter associated with 4 portraits.
  • Jerome of Prague (circa 1370-1416), Bohemian religious reformer. Sitter associated with 6 portraits.
  • John Knox (circa 1514-1572), Scottish reformer and historian. Sitter associated with 35 portraits.
  • Hugh Latimer (circa 1485-1555), Bishop of Worcester. Sitter associated with 33 portraits.
  • Martin Luther (1483-1546), German religious reformer. Sitter associated with 17 portraits.
  • Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560), German protestant reformer. Sitter associated with 5 portraits.
  • Johannes Oecolampadius (1482-1531), German religious reformer. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • William Perkins (1558-1602), Puritan divine. Sitter associated with 17 portraits.
  • Nicholas Ridley (1500-1555), Bishop of London. Sitter associated with 28 portraits.
  • St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), Philosopher and theologian. Sitter associated with 6 portraits.
  • Pietro Vermigli (1499-1562), Reformer, Theologian and known as 'Peter Martyr'. Sitter associated with 15 portraits.
  • John Wycliffe (1324?-1384), Religious reformer and theologian. Sitter associated with 21 portraits.
  • Jerome Zanchius (1516-1590), Italian Protestant Reformation clergyman. Sitter associated with 2 portraits.
  • Ulricus Zuinglius (1487-1531), Swiss reformer. Sitter associated with 1 portrait.

Events of 1769back to top

Current affairs

Radical John Wilkes is expelled from Parliament once again, on the grounds that he was an outlaw when he was voted in. He is re-elected by his Middlesex constituents, then expelled and re-elected twice more, until Parliament declares his opponent, Henry Luttrell, the winner. First of 69 anonymous Letters of Junius appears in the Public Advertiser, exposing political corruption. The politician Sir Philip Francis is now believed to have been responsible.

Art and science

Josiah Wedgwood opens his Etruria Works for the manufacture of pottery. Inventor Richard Arkwright patents a spinning frame able to weave fabric mechanically. Gordon's London Dry Gin is produced for the first time. First Royal Academy exhibition is held. Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage is first published.


Captain Cook observes the transit of Venus in Tahiti while his passengers, Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander, collect valuable specimens of Pacific flora. The expedition travels on to New Zealand where Cook begins charting the country's entire coastline. Treaty of Madras ends the First Anglo-Mysore War but fails to settle dispute. French inventor Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot tests a steam wagon, probably the first working mechanical vehicle.

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