© National Portrait Gallery, London
Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine
by Arnold van Westerhout, after Giovanni Battista Lenardi Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, 1688
10 1/8 in. x 7 7/8 in. (256 mm x 199 mm) plate size; 11 3/8 in. x 8 1/4 in. (289 mm x 209 mm) overall
Given by Henry Witte Martin, 1861
- NPG D2025: Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine (from same plate)
- NPG D18868: Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine (from same plate)
- NPG D30872: Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine (from same plate)
The Glorious Revolution. Senior statesmen, increasingly resentful of James's assault upon liberties of his subjects, invite William III of Orange to invade England. Their action is spurred on by the acquittal of seven bishops who refused to read James II's declaration of indulgence from their pulpits. James flees into exile.
Art and science
George Savile, Marquess of Halifax, publishes his political tract, The Character of a Trimmer
, written 1685, which urged Charles II to shake off his brother's influence. Writer, Aphra Behn, publishes Oroonoko
, often considered to be an abolitionist treatise.
Nine Years' War. Threatened by William III's invasion of England and possible alliance of Protestant European states under his helm, Louis XIV sends French troops into the Rhineland. This pre-emptive strike ignites a war of attrition, and institutes a coalition of European states united in attempting to halt expansionist France.