© National Portrait Gallery, London
Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland
by and published by Isaac Beckett, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, circa 1681-1688
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Isaac Beckett (1652 or 1653-1688), Engraver. Artist associated with 184 portraits.
- Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (1646-1723), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 1681 portraits, Sitter associated with 30 portraits.
- NPG D11617: Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland (from same plate)
- NPG D1473: Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland (from same plate)
- NPG D1474: Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland (from same plate)
- NPG D20042: Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland (from same plate)
Third Exclusion Parliament meets in Oxford avoiding disruption in Whig-dominated London. Charles II refuses Exclusionists's proposal that James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, his illegitimate son with Lucy Walter, should succeed to the throne, replacing James, Duke of York. Prominent Exclusionist, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, is arrested on suspicion of high treason.
Art and science
Natural philosopher, Samuel Morland is appointed 'Master of Mechanicks' to the king having transformed Windsor Castle's water system. Architect, Christopher Wren, is commissioned to design the Royal Hospital, Chelsea.Poet laureate, John Dryden, writes political satire Absalom and Achitophel
, focusing upon the trial of Anthony Ashley-Cooper.
King of France, Louis XIV, concerned by England's instability over the exclusion crisis, offers Charles II a subsidy, bolstering the king in his dealings with Parliament. In return, England agrees to withdraw from entering an anti-French alliance with Spain; Laurence Hyde, Lord of the Treasury, signs the accord with France.