© National Portrait Gallery, London
Sir Henry Brooke Cobham
after an engraving by Remigius Hogenberg Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, (1582)
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
Raid of Ruthven - King James VI of Scotland is kidnapped by a group of Presbyterian nobles, led by William Ruthven, Earl of Gowrie. The plotters rule Scotland for ten months with the approval of Queen Elizabeth I and the Scottish Kirk.
Art and science
The courtier, poet and soldier Sir Philip Sidney writes Astrophil and Stella
, a collection of love sonnets and songs, and A Defence of Poetry
, one of the first pieces of literary criticism in English.Death of the scholar George Buchanan and posthumous publication of his history of Scotland, Rerum Scoticarum historia
(Histories of Scottish Matters).The poet and dramatist William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway.
The Gregorian Calendar (named after Pope Gregory XIII), which advances the date by ten day, is adopted throughout Catholic Europe. Protestant countries continue to use the old dating system, the Julian Calendar, until the eighteenth century. The Peace of Jam-Zapolski concludes the Livonian War between Russia and Poland. Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland and loses access to the Baltic Sea.