© National Portrait Gallery, London
Eleanor ('Nell') Gwyn
by Valentine Green, published by Walter Shropshire, after Simon Verelst Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, published 17 November 1777
10 in. x 7 1/2 in. (253 mm x 189 mm) plate size; 14 1/8 in. x 10 7/8 in. (360 mm x 275 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Eleanor ('Nell') Gwyn (1651?-1687), Actress; mistress of Charles II. Sitter associated with 29 portraits.
- Valentine Green (1739-1813), Mezzotint engraver. Artist associated with 149 portraits, Sitter in 3 portraits.
- Walter Shropshire (died 1785), Publisher. Artist associated with 18 portraits.
- Simon Verelst (circa 1644-circa 1710). Artist associated with 7 portraits.
Trent and Mersey Canal is completed under the supervision of engineer James Brindley. Philanthropist and reformer John Howard publishes his study The State of the Prisons in England and Wales
Art and science
Artist James Barry begins his monumental series of paintings The Progress of Human Culture
for the Great Room of the Society of Arts in London. He completes it in 1783. Richard Brinsley Sheridan's second play, The School for Scandal
, is an immediate success in London's Drury Lane Theatre.Entrepreneur William Bass establishes the Bass Brewery at Burton upon Trent.
American War of Independence: George Washington, heavily defeated at the Battle of Brandywine, is forced to relinquish Philadelphia to the British under General William Howe. At the two Battles of Saratoga only weeks later General John Burgoyne is forced to surrender to the Americans, marking a turning point in the war. The Continental Congress agrees the final version of the Articles of Confederation, defining the terms on which states join the Union.