© National Portrait Gallery, London
John (John) Joshua Kirby
by James Scott, published by Henry Graves & Co, after Thomas Gainsborough Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, published 1879 (circa 1764)
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- (John) Joshua Kirby (1716-1774), Artist and teacher of linear perspective; friend of Thomas Gainsborough. Sitter in 7 portraits.
- Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788), Portrait and landscape painter. Artist associated with 262 portraits, Sitter in 8 portraits.
- Henry Graves & Co (active 1844-1899), Publishers. Artist associated with 228 portraits.
- James Scott (circa 1809-circa 1889), Engraver. Artist associated with 132 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
- NPG D3436: John (John) Joshua Kirby (from same plate)
- NPG D36886: John (John) Joshua Kirby (from same plate)
Women's education continues to grow, with the founding of women's colleges in Oxford. Somerville College took its name from the late Scottish scientific writer Mary Somerville. Lady Margaret Hall was founded by Elizabeth Wordsworth, great niece of the poet, and named after Margaret Beaufort, a medieval noblewoman and mother of Henry VII.
Art and science
Edison invents the first practical electric light bulb.The first prehistoric paintings, dating back 14,000 years, are discovered in the Altamira caves in Northern Spain when a young girl notices paintings of bison on the ceilings. The French actress Sarah Bernhardt, already acclaimed for roles in plays such as Racine's Phèdre
and Victor Hugo's Hernani
, celebrates a successful season at London's Gaiety Theatre.
Anglo-Zulu war fought between British forces and the Zulus, after disputes between the Boers and Zulu leader Cetshywayo over the Utrecht border attracted British intervention. The British victory marked the end of the independent Zulu nation, although the Zulu's initial victory at Isandhlwana was a major surprise. The Battle of Rorke's Drift was dramatised in the film Zulu
, starring Michael Caine, in 1964.