© National Portrait Gallery, London
by Wenceslaus Hollar, after Hans Holbein the Younger Click on the links below to find out more
5 3/8 in. x 4 1/4 in. (137 mm x 108 mm) paper size
- Jane Seymour (1508 or 1509-1537), Third Queen of Henry VIII. Sitter associated with 12 portraits.
- Hans Holbein the Younger (1497 or 1498-1543). Artist associated with 314 portraits, Sitter associated with 25 portraits.
- Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677), Etcher. Artist associated with 533 portraits, Sitter associated with 10 portraits.
- Gittings, Clare, The National Portrait Gallery Book of The Tudors, 2006, p. 12
- Williamson, David, The National Portrait Gallery: History of the Kings and Queens of England, 1998, p. 88
- Williamson, David, Kings and Queens, 2010, p. 89
Resurgence of civil war largely ends at the battle of Preston, won by Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell's command.Parliamentary General Henry Ireton's Army Remonstrance demands the king is tried an enemy of the state. Ireton also instigates a coups d'état, Pride's Purge, ridding Parliament of MPs supporting negotiations with Charles.
Art and science
John Wilkins, Bishop of Chester, publishes Mathematical Magick
, the first work in English on the fundamental principles of mechanics, conceived in the form of a practical manual.
A series of European treaties, negotiated since 1644, results in the Peace of Westphalia and ends the German phase of the Thirty Years' War, and war between the Dutch and Spain in the Eighty Years' War. Delegations are sent from around Europe, Henri II d'Orleans leads the French delegation.