© National Portrait Gallery, London
by John Raphael Smith, after Sir Joshua Reynolds Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, published 1777
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), Painter and first President of the Royal Academy. Artist associated with 1413 portraits, Sitter associated with 38 portraits.
- John Raphael Smith (1752-1812), Portrait painter, engraver and pastellist. Artist associated with 184 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
- NPG D4221: Jonathan Shipley (from same plate)
Trent and Mersey Canal is completed under the supervision of engineer James Brindley. Philanthropist and reformer John Howard publishes his study The State of the Prisons in England and Wales
Art and science
Artist James Barry begins his monumental series of paintings The Progress of Human Culture
for the Great Room of the Society of Arts in London. He completes it in 1783. Richard Brinsley Sheridan's second play, The School for Scandal
, is an immediate success in London's Drury Lane Theatre.Entrepreneur William Bass establishes the Bass Brewery at Burton upon Trent.
American War of Independence: George Washington, heavily defeated at the Battle of Brandywine, is forced to relinquish Philadelphia to the British under General William Howe. At the two Battles of Saratoga only weeks later General John Burgoyne is forced to surrender to the Americans, marking a turning point in the war. The Continental Congress agrees the final version of the Articles of Confederation, defining the terms on which states join the Union.