© National Portrait Gallery, London
Sir John Hawkins
by Magdalena de Passe, by Willem de Passe Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, published 1620
7 in. x 5 3/8 in. (177 mm x 136 mm) paper size
- Magdalena de Passe (1600-1638), Engraver. Artist associated with 136 portraits, Sitter in 2 portraits.
- Willem de Passe (1597 or 1598-1636 or 1637), Engraver. Artist associated with 174 portraits.
- NPG D3236: Sir John Hawkins (from same plate)
- Dodd, Christopher, Unto the tideway born, 2015, p. 51
The beginning of a severe economic depression in England is widely blamed on the East India Company whose export of bullion on each voyage financed their trade. Additionally, despite efforts by Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, to reduce the royal household's expenditure, James I's debt is historically high.
Art and science
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