© National Portrait Gallery, London
Mary (née Somerset), Duchess of Ormonde
by John Smith, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt Click on the links below to find out more
13 1/2 in. x 9 7/8 in. (343 mm x 250 mm) plate size; 14 1/8 in. x 10 3/8 in. (360 mm x 263 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (1646-1723), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 1681 portraits, Sitter associated with 30 portraits.
- John Smith (1652-1743), Engraver. Artist associated with 1180 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.
- NPG D3785: Mary (née Somerset), Duchess of Ormonde (from same plate)
- NPG D5730: Mary (née Somerset), Duchess of Ormonde (from same plate)
- NPG D11593: Mary (née Somerset), Duchess of Ormonde and her son Thomas, Earl of Ossory (from same plate)
Charles II dies, his heir, Catholic brother, James II, succeeds to the throne. Despite deep distrust by many Protestants, he initially experiences unexpected popularity. James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, leads the Monmouth Rebellion ambitious to seize the throne. Following his defeat at Sedgemoor, Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill.
Art and scienceOpera Universa
, by physician Thomas Sydenham, considered the father of English medicine, is published in London. Organist, Henry Purcell composes, My heart is inditing
, for the coronation of James II and his queen, Mary of Modena. Writer on dentistry, Charles Allen publishes the earliest known English book on dentistry.
The Edict of Fontainebleau is issued by Louis XIV revoking the Edict of Nantes which gave Huguenots a right to practice their religion, free from persecution. Although Huguenots had steadily left France since the Dragonnades in 1681, this edict essentially ended official religious toleration in France.