© National Portrait Gallery, London
Robert Bruce, 1st Earl of Ailesbury and 2nd Earl of Elgin
by John Smith, after Sir Peter Lely Click on the links below to find out more
11 3/8 in. x 7 3/4 in. (290 mm x 197 mm) plate size, small margins
- Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 840 portraits, Sitter in 19 portraits.
- John Smith (1652-1743), Engraver. Artist associated with 1180 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.
- NPG D19773: Robert Bruce, 1st Earl of Ailesbury and 2nd Earl of Elgin (from same plate)
The fellows of Magdalen College, defying James II's instructions that they choose a Roman Catholic as its president, elect John Hough, Bishop of Worcester. The crown subsequently expels the fellows and annuls Hough's position. The Declaration of Indulgence is issued, granting greater religious tolerance towards nonconformists and Catholics.
Art and science
Astronomer, Edmond Halley, publishes Isaac Newton's Principia
, Newton's theory on the laws of gravity and motion. Poet laureate, John Dryden, publishes The Hind and the Panther
, a pro-Catholic, allegorical poem constructed as a theological discussion between the animals who represent the Church of Rome and Church of England respectively.
Papist Richard Talbot is appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland, the first Catholic to take the position since the Reformation.