© National Portrait Gallery, London
Prince James Francis Edward Stuart
by Pieter Schenck, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt Click on the links below to find out more
9 3/4 in. x 7 3/8 in. (248 mm x 187 mm) plate size; 10 3/8 in. x 7 7/8 in. (264 mm x 200 mm) paper size
- Pieter Schenck (1660-1711), Engraver and publisher. Artist associated with 50 portraits.
- Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (1646-1723), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 1682 portraits, Sitter associated with 30 portraits.
The Glorious Revolution. Senior statesmen, increasingly resentful of James's assault upon liberties of his subjects, invite William III of Orange to invade England. Their action is spurred on by the acquittal of seven bishops who refused to read James II's declaration of indulgence from their pulpits. James flees into exile.
Art and science
George Savile, Marquess of Halifax, publishes his political tract, The Character of a Trimmer
, written 1685, which urged Charles II to shake off his brother's influence. Writer, Aphra Behn, publishes Oroonoko
, often considered to be an abolitionist treatise.
Nine Years' War. Threatened by William III's invasion of England and possible alliance of Protestant European states under his helm, Louis XIV sends French troops into the Rhineland. This pre-emptive strike ignites a war of attrition, and institutes a coalition of European states united in attempting to halt expansionist France.