© National Portrait Gallery, London
Mary Villiers, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox
by Wenceslaus Hollar Click on the links below to find out more
2 1/2 in. x 1 1/4 in. (62 mm x 48 mm) paper size
- Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677), Etcher. Artist associated with 530 portraits, Sitter associated with 10 portraits.
First proposed by Sir WiIliam Waller, the New Model Army, the first national army consisting of full-time soldiers, is recruited by Parliament. Under the leadership of Thomas Fairfax, Commander-in-Chief, the Army decisively wins the battles of Naseby and Langport against the Royalists. Archbishop William Laud is beheaded for treason.
Art and science
Alexander Ross, clergyman and philosopher publishes The Philosophical Touch-Stone
, an important refutation of the unorthodox Aristotelianism expounded by Sir Kenelm Digby in his Two Treaties
. Physician Daniel Whistler, presents his thesis on rickets at the Dutch university of Leiden, the first printed text on the disease.
Charles I commissions Edward Somerset, Marquess of Worcester, to secretly negotiate with Irish Confederates. For generous concessions the Confederates would raise an army to fight against parliamentarians. Ongoing, complex negotiations secure the signing of two treaties but the king eventually disavows the agreements and repudiates Somerset.