© National Portrait Gallery, London
Frans van den Wyngaerde (Wijngaerde)
by Wenceslaus Hollar, after Vincentius Castellanus Click on the links below to find out more
7. 7/8 in. x 6 7/8 in. (201 mm x 175 mm) paper size
Charles II, crowned King of Scotland, daringly invades England. His defeat at the Battle of Worcester by Oliver Cromwell permanently ends further military action against Parliament. Charles's escape from Worcester becomes legendary, as a fugitive, he seeks refuge for six weeks before finally fleeing to Normandy.
Art and science
Social philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, publishes his major work, Leviathan
. Recognised as a cornerstone of western political philosophy, Hobbes's implication that the new political authority should be accepted, angering many exiled royalists.
Headed by Chief Justice, Oliver St. John, a delegation is sent by the Rump Parliament to The Hague to negotiate a union between England and the Dutch Republic. The mission fails, principally over refusal by the Dutch to expel the exiled Stuart royal family from the country.