© National Portrait Gallery, London
Joseph John Gurney
by Charles Edward Wagstaff, after George Richmond Click on the links below to find out more
19 1/4 in. x 14 1/2 in. (490 mm x 369 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Joseph John Gurney (1788-1847), Banker, Quaker philanthropist and writer. Sitter in 5 portraits.
- George Richmond (1809-1896), Portrait painter and draughtsman; son of Thomas Richmond. Artist associated with 325 portraits, Sitter in 14 portraits.
- Charles Edward Wagstaff (1808-1850), Engraver. Artist associated with 44 portraits.
William Lovett founds the Working Men's Association, the precursor to Chartism, with the aim to achieving equal social and political rights between men of all classes. A reduction in stamp duty from 4d to 1d helps to keep unstamped newspapers off the street, and leads to wider circulation of legal newspapers. The first railway line is built in London, connecting to Greenwich and operated by the London Greenwich Railway (LGR).
Art and science
The American poet and writer Ralph Waldo Emerson outlines his theory of transcendentalism in Nature
, in which he argues for individualism above traditional authority, stressing the infinitude of the private self and the possibility of achieving an original relation to the universe. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer publishes On the Will in Nature
, a precursor to his famous The World as Will and Representation
Texas declares its independence from Mexico following a series of battles, including those at the Alamo and Goliad. Sam Houston is the first president of Texas, serving both in 1836-38 and 1841-44. The city of Adelaide is founded in Australia, at the mouth of the Torrens river, named in honour of Queen Adelaide, consort of William IV.