© National Portrait Gallery, London
James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde
by and published by John Smith, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, 1701 (circa 1700)
13 3/4 in. x 10 in. (350 mm x 255 mm) plate size; 14 1/8 in. x 10 3/8 in. (360 mm x 265 mm) paper size
- Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (1646-1723), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 1681 portraits, Sitter associated with 30 portraits.
- John Smith (1652-1743), Engraver. Artist associated with 1180 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.
- NPG D3778: James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde (from same plate)
- NPG D3779: James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde (from same plate)
Exiled James II dies in France. Various parts of his body are interred in a number of churches around the country; his corpse is buried in the English church in the Faubourg St. Jacques. The Act of Settlement is passed, securing the throne to the Protestant Hanoverians.
Art and science
Supported by the Bishop of London, Henry Compton, The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, founded by Thomas Bray, obtains a royal charter. Publication of The Christian Hero
, the first major work by essayist Richard Steele.
War of the Spanish Succession ensues. William III restores the grand alliance against France determined to prevent Louis XIV from installing his grandson, Philip of Anjou, upon the Spanish throne. The grand alliance, resolute upon a Habsburg succession in Spain, wished to prevent the country's unification with France.