© National Portrait Gallery, London
The Seven Bishops Committed to the Tower in 1688
possibly published by John Smith, after Unknown artist Click on the links below to find out more
7 1/2 in. x 5 3/8 in. (189 mm x 138 mm) plate size, small margins
- John Smith (1652-1743), Engraver. Artist associated with 1180 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.
- Unknown artist. Artist associated with 6332 portraits.
- Thomas Ken (1637-1711), Bishop of Bath and Wells. Sitter in 20 portraits.
- John Lake (1624-1689), Bishop of Chichester. Sitter in 13 portraits.
- William Lloyd (1627-1717), Bishop of Worcester. Sitter in 19 portraits.
- William Sancroft (1617-1693), Archbishop of Canterbury. Sitter in 29 portraits.
- Sir Jonathan Trelawny, 3rd Bt (1650-1721), Bishop of Winchester. Sitter associated with 15 portraits.
- Francis Turner (1638?-1700), Bishop of Ely. Sitter in 14 portraits.
- Thomas White (1628-1698), Bishop of Peterborough. Sitter in 13 portraits.
- NPG 79: The Seven Bishops Committed to the Tower in 1688 (source portrait)
The Glorious Revolution. Senior statesmen, increasingly resentful of James's assault upon liberties of his subjects, invite William III of Orange to invade England. Their action is spurred on by the acquittal of seven bishops who refused to read James II's declaration of indulgence from their pulpits. James flees into exile.
Art and science
George Savile, Marquess of Halifax, publishes his political tract, The Character of a Trimmer
, written 1685, which urged Charles II to shake off his brother's influence. Writer, Aphra Behn, publishes Oroonoko
, often considered to be an abolitionist treatise.
Nine Years' War. Threatened by William III's invasion of England and possible alliance of Protestant European states under his helm, Louis XIV sends French troops into the Rhineland. This pre-emptive strike ignites a war of attrition, and institutes a coalition of European states united in attempting to halt expansionist France.