© National Portrait Gallery, London
'John Bull, in a quandary' (Lord John Townshend; Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood)
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey Click on the links below to find out more
hand-coloured etching, published 31 July 1788
9 3/4 in. x 13 3/4 in. (249 mm x 349 mm) plate size; 10 1/4 in. x 14 1/8 in. (259 mm x 359 mm) paper size
- James Gillray (1756-1815), Caricaturist. Artist associated with 881 portraits, Sitter in 7 portraits.
- Hannah Humphrey (active 1778-1822), Publisher and printseller. Artist associated with 718 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
Parliament begins an investigation into the slave trade, led by reformers Thomas Clarkson and William Wilberforce.Regency Crisis; George III's madness is announced provoking a political storm. Former Governor-General of Bengal Warren Hastings' trial begins before the House of Lords.Henry Benedict Stuart becomes the new Stuart claimant to the British throne.
Art and science
Artist Thomas Gainsborough dies. First edition of The Times
newspaper is published in London.Scottish engineer and inventor William Symington demonstrates the first paddle steamer on Dalswinton Loch near Dumfries.Robert Burns writes his version of the Scots poem Auld Lang Syne
Ministers of the French King, Louis XVI, reluctantly announce that the Estates General will meet the following year, for the first time since 1614. United States constitution comes into force when New Hampshire becomes the ninth state to ratify it. First Fleet reaches Australia, anchoring in Botany Bay. Arthur Phillip, selecting a suitable site for the first Australian penal colony, names the place Sydney Cove.