© National Portrait Gallery, London
Napoléon Bonaparte ('Buonaparté leaving Egypt')
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey Click on the links below to find out more
hand-coloured etching, published 8 March 1800
14 1/4 in. x 10 3/8 in. (363 mm x 262 mm) plate size; 14 7/8 in. x 10 7/8 in. (377 mm x 276 mm) paper size
- Napoléon Bonaparte (1769-1821), Emperor of France 1804-14. Sitter associated with 86 portraits.
- James Gillray (1756-1815), Caricaturist. Artist associated with 881 portraits, Sitter in 7 portraits.
- Hannah Humphrey (active 1778-1822), Publisher and printseller. Artist associated with 718 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
Widespread food riots after poor harvests of 1798-9. Theorist, Thomas Malthus, controversially argues that poverty and food shortages are an inevitable consequence of population growth, challenging assumptions that populousness was a sign of national prosperity and power. His thesis contributed forcefully to the debate over the existing Poor Law.
Art and science
William Wordsworth publishes his Preface
to the Lyrical Ballads
; a retrospective explanation of his experimental poems written with Samuel Taylor Coleridge. It becomes one of the best-known manifestos of Romantic literature.
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