© National Portrait Gallery, London
'Democracy; - or - a sketch of the life of Buonaparte' (Napoléon Bonaparte; Lucien Bonaparte; Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès)
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey Click on the links below to find out more
hand-coloured etching, published 12 May 1800
12 1/8 in. x 18 3/8 in. (309 mm x 467 mm) paper size
- Lucien Bonaparte (1775-1840), 1st Prince of Canino and Musignano and politician. Sitter in 1 portrait.
- Napoléon Bonaparte (1769-1821), Emperor of France 1804-14. Sitter associated with 85 portraits.
- Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748-1836), Consul of the Republic. Sitter in 1 portrait.
- James Gillray (1756-1815), Caricaturist. Artist associated with 881 portraits, Sitter in 7 portraits.
- Hannah Humphrey (active 1778-1822), Publisher and printseller. Artist associated with 718 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
Widespread food riots after poor harvests of 1798-9. Theorist, Thomas Malthus, controversially argues that poverty and food shortages are an inevitable consequence of population growth, challenging assumptions that populousness was a sign of national prosperity and power. His thesis contributed forcefully to the debate over the existing Poor Law.
Art and science
William Wordsworth publishes his Preface
to the Lyrical Ballads
; a retrospective explanation of his experimental poems written with Samuel Taylor Coleridge. It becomes one of the best-known manifestos of Romantic literature.
Lord Castlereagh, Chief Secretary for Ireland, is the main architect of the Act of Union under which Ireland is merged with Great Britain and the Irish parliament is abolished.British troops support successful uprising by Maltese against the French.Napoleon is victorious against Austrians at Marengo and reconquers Italy.