© National Portrait Gallery, London
Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings ('A hint to young officers')
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey Click on the links below to find out more
hand-coloured etching and aquatint, published 9 July 1804
14 3/4 in. x 10 in. (375 mm x 253 mm) plate size; 14 7/8 in. x 10 1/4 in. (379 mm x 259 mm) paper size
- James Gillray (1756-1815), Caricaturist. Artist associated with 881 portraits, Sitter in 7 portraits.
- Hannah Humphrey (active 1778-1822), Publisher and printseller. Artist associated with 718 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
William Pitt returns to office and forms a second coalition administration, retaining many of those who had served under his predecessor Henry Addington but specifically excluding his arch rival Charles James Fox .
Art and science
William Blake starts writing Jerusalem
. One of his most ambitious allegorical poems, it took nearly eight years to complete. Amidst infighting about submissions to the annual exhibition, attempts are made to unseat painter Benjamin West as President of the Royal Academy and elect architect James Wyatt instead.
Napoleon declares himself Emperor of France and is crowned as Napoleon I by Pope Pius VII in Paris. Haiti achieves independence led by Toussaint L'Ouverture, the patriot and martyr who had seized control from the French in 1801. He becomes a symbolic figure of freedom for the British anti-slavery movement.