© National Portrait Gallery, London
Probably Sir William Butts
by Wenceslaus Hollar, after Hans Holbein the Younger Click on the links below to find out more
5 3/8 in. x 3 3/4 in. (136 mm x 94 mm) plate size; 6 7/8 in. x 5 in. (174 mm x 127 mm) paper size
- Sir William Butts (1485-1545), Physician and confidant of Henry VIII. Sitter associated with 7 portraits.
- Hans Holbein the Younger (1497 or 1498-1543). Artist associated with 310 portraits, Sitter in 19 portraits.
- Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677), Etcher. Artist associated with 528 portraits, Sitter associated with 10 portraits.
- NPG D17892: Probably Sir William Butts (from same plate)
Charged with subverting the nation's laws and liberties and cruelly making war against Parliament and the English people, Charles I is found guilty by a court of 159 commissioners, and beheaded outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall. England is declared a commonwealth and power is entrusted to a Council of State.
Art and scienceEikon Basilike
, a self-exonerating account of Charles I's rule, is published days after his death. Allegedly written by the king himself, John Gauden, Bishop of Worcester, claimed authorship after the Restoration. Other tributes followed the king's death giving rise to a royalist cult of Charles the Martyr.
Oliver Cromwell, as lord lieutenant of Ireland, begins his brutal campaign in Ireland to subdue royalist support, and leads English Parliamentarian forces against the Royalist-Confederate coalition. The campaign's bloody massacres, in particular, the Siege of Drogheda and Wexford where Cromwell's troops slaughtered soldiers and civilians alike, became notorious.