© National Portrait Gallery, London
by or after Edward Bower Click on the links below to find out more
oil on canvas, circa 1640
24 5/8 in. x 20 1/2 in. (626 mm x 520 mm)
Given by Paul Gore, 2003
- John Pym (1584-1643), Politician and one of the 'Five Members' whose arrest by Charles I sparked the Civil War. Sitter associated with 16 portraits.
- Edward Bower (active 1635-1667), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 24 portraits.
Second Bishops' War. James Graham, Marquess of Montrose, leading the Scottish armies, occupies northeast of England. Defeat at the Battle of Newburn forces impoverished Charles to sign Treaty of Ripon. Long Parliament. Habeas Corpus Act is passed, abolishing the Star Chamber. Impeachment of Royalists, Earl of Strafford and Archbishop Laud.
Art and science
Author, James Howell, writes Dodona's Grove
, a historical allegory of events since 1603. A renowned royalist, Howell's anti-parliamentary remarks in the book would later attract accusations from parliamentarians. The last Caroline masque before the outbreak of civil war, Salmacida Spolia
by Sir William Davenant, is performed at Whitehall Palace.
Frederick William becomes Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia. The Elector's policy of religious tolerance benefited his state during the religious struggles dominating the Thirty Years' War. The Bay Psalm Book
is published, the first book to be printed in British North America.