© National Portrait Gallery, London
Charles Lewis (Louis), Elector Palatine
by Pieter de Jode II, after Anselmus Hebbelynck Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, 1654
11 1/8 in., x 8 1/8 in. (281 mm x 207 mm) paper size
Given by Henry Witte Martin, 1861
Under the constitution prescribed in 'The Instrument of Government', the first Protectorate Parliament is summoned by Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector. The constitution also marks the first systematic distribution of Parliamentary seats, listing MPs to be returned to Parliament. William Lenthall, Speaker of the House since 1640, continues as Speaker.
Art and science
Poet and polemicist, John Milton, writes Defensio secunda
, in defence of the Parliamentary regime, and in response to an anonymous royalist tract which violently attacked Milton, the Clamor
, published in The Hague in 1652, most probably written by religious controversialist, Anglican Peter Du Moulin.
Charles X, King of Sweden, ascends the Swedish throne after the scandal of Queen Kristina's abdication and subsequent conversion to Catholicism. Treaty of Westminster is signed ending the First Anglo-Dutch War.King Louis XIV of France is crowned at Rheims.