© National Portrait Gallery, London
Elizabeth Montagu (née Robinson)
by Robert Bowyer Parkes, published by Henry Graves, after Sir Joshua Reynolds Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, published 1867 (1775)
8 1/2 in. x 6 1/2 in. (216 mm x 165 mm) plate size; 9 1/2 in. x 7 1/2 in. (241 mm x 191 mm) paper size
Bequeathed by (Frederick) Leverton Harris, 1927
- Henry Graves (1806-1892), Printseller and fine art publisher. Artist associated with 47 portraits, Sitter in 3 portraits.
- Robert Bowyer Parkes (1830-1891), Engraver. Artist associated with 59 portraits.
- Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), Painter and first President of the Royal Academy. Artist associated with 1413 portraits, Sitter associated with 38 portraits.
The Second Reform Act, although effectively a Liberal measure, is expediently passed by the Conservatives, under Disraeli's influence, who believed it would widen Conservative appeal by making the party appear more progressive. The Act extended the vote to 1.5 million working men in British towns, and redistributed 52 seats from towns with populations under 10,000 to the newer urban towns.
Art and science
Karl Marx publishes his hugely influential Das Kapital
, whilst living and researching in London. Its proclaimed aim was 'to lay bare the economic law of motion of modern society', and it presented mid-Victorian capitalism in terms of a tragic drama. Henry Irving rises to fame on the London stage, performing alongside Ellen Terry for the first time, beginning their famous theatrical association.
Francis Joseph, the Emperor of Austria, becomes King of Hungary, and thus ruler of the 'dual monarchy' of Austria-Hungary. The dominion of Canada is formed, as the British North America Act unites four British colonies, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec. The Act defines much of Canada's constitution and operation of government, and Canada's dominion status is the first of its kind.