© National Portrait Gallery, London
King James II
by Wenceslaus Hollar Click on the links below to find out more
etching, circa 1670
12 3/8 in. x 8 3/4 in. (313 mm x 223 mm) plate size; 15 1/4 in. x 11 3/8 in. (387 mm x 288 mm) paper size
- King James II (1633-1701), Reigned 1685-88. Sitter associated with 132 portraits.
- Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677), Etcher. Artist associated with 533 portraits, Sitter associated with 10 portraits.
Charles II mistress, Barbara Villiers, is created Duchess of Cleveland and granted Nonsuch Palace including its sizeable grounds. Actress and royal mistress, Nell Gwyn, gives birth to Charles II's son, Charles, who would later become, Duke of St. Albans.
Art and science
Tragicomedy, The Forc'd Marriage
, by Aphra Behn, staged by the Duke's Company, starts Behn's career as a professional writer. The writer may have been a royalist spy towards the end of the interregnum. Poet laureate, John Dryden, is made historiographer royal, a post he would hold for nearly 20 years.
Terms of a secret treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV are brought by Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans during a visit to Dover; upon England supplying the majority of military power for a war against Holland and Charles's official conversion to Catholicism, France would assist financially.