© National Portrait Gallery, London
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford
by Jacobus Houbraken, published by John & Paul Knapton, after Arthur Pond Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, published 1746
14 5/8 in. x 9 in. (372 mm x 230 mm) paper size
Given by Sir Herbert Henry Raphael, 1st Bt, 1916
- Jacobus Houbraken (1698-1780), Engraver. Artist associated with 435 portraits.
- John & Paul Knapton (active 1735-1789), Booksellers and publishers. Artist associated with 290 portraits.
- Arthur Pond (1701-1758), Painter and engraver. Artist associated with 31 portraits, Sitter in 3 portraits.
- NPG D16746: Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford (from same plate)
- NPG D16747: Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford (from same plate)
- NPG D39365: Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford (from same plate)
- NPG D39366: Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford (from same plate)
Jacobites are defeated by the Duke of Cumberland and his forces at the Battle of Culloden; the last battle to take place on British soil. Bonnie Prince Charlie escapes to France with the help of Flora MacDonald. His supporters the Earl of Kilmarnock and Lord Balmeniro are beheaded. Dress Act bans Tartan and Highland dress.
Art and science
Scottish physician William Hunter begins his public lectures on anatomy.Italian artist Giovanni Antonio Canal, better known as Canaletto, arrives in England, where he remains until 1755. Quaker Minister and pharmacist William Cookworthy discovers kaolin or china clay in Cornwall and devises a way of making porcelain, which was previously imported from China.
War of the Austrian Succession: French forces led by Joseph François Dupleix capture the British East India Company's fort at Madras. One of its defenders, Robert Clive, makes his name by escaping his French captors. Frederick II of Prussia begins building his summer palace of Sans Souci at Potsdam. His three victories in 1745 cause him to be known as Frederick the Great.Philip V of Spain dies and is succeeded by Ferdinand VI.