© National Portrait Gallery, London
Sir John Hawkins
after James Roberts Click on the links below to find out more
etching, early 19th century
6 3/4 in. x 5 3/8 in. (173 mm x 136 mm) plate size; 11 in. x 7 7/8 in. (280 mm x 200 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- James Roberts (1753-in or after 1809), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 52 portraits.
Widespread food riots after poor harvests of 1798-9. Theorist, Thomas Malthus, controversially argues that poverty and food shortages are an inevitable consequence of population growth, challenging assumptions that populousness was a sign of national prosperity and power. His thesis contributed forcefully to the debate over the existing Poor Law.
Art and science
William Wordsworth publishes his Preface
to the Lyrical Ballads
; a retrospective explanation of his experimental poems written with Samuel Taylor Coleridge. It becomes one of the best-known manifestos of Romantic literature.
Lord Castlereagh, Chief Secretary for Ireland, is the main architect of the Act of Union under which Ireland is merged with Great Britain and the Irish parliament is abolished.British troops support successful uprising by Maltese against the French.Napoleon is victorious against Austrians at Marengo and reconquers Italy.