© National Portrait Gallery, London
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban
after Simon de Passe Click on the links below to find out more
engraving, published circa 1638
9 3/4 in. x 6 1/8 in. (249 mm x 155 mm) paper size
Given by Sir Herbert Henry Raphael, 1st Bt, 1916
- Simon de Passe (1595-1647), Engraver. Artist associated with 202 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.
Amid turmoil in Scotland against Charles I's attempt to impose an episcopalian system of church government and Book of Common Prayer, theologian Alexander Henderson and politician Archibald Johnston of Wariston, defiantly draw up a new national covenant, whereby its signatories reaffirm their Presbyterian discipline.
Art and science
Political agitator, John Lilburne, is imprisoned for distributing unlicensed satirical pamphlets against episcopacy. Luminalia
by dramatist Sir William Davenant, is performed by Queen Henrietta Maria and her Ladies-in-Waiting. With designs by Inigo Jones, it was one of the last and most spectacular masques staged at the Stuart Court.
Lord High Chancellor Oxenstierna, head of the regency council ruling Sweden until the young Queen Kristina came of age, agrees the Treaty of Hamburg, renewing Sweden's alliance with France. Under its terms, in exchange for financial assistance from France, Sweden continued its military contribution in the Thirty years' War.