by Samuel Freeman, after Sir Joshua Reynolds Click on the links below to find out more
stipple engraving, circa 1825-1850 (1779)
5 in. x 3 5/8 in. (126 mm x 93 mm) paper size
Given by Sir Herbert Henry Raphael, 1st Bt, 1916
- Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), Historian; author of 'Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'. Sitter in 14 portraits.
- Samuel Freeman (1773-1857), Engraver. Artist associated with 79 portraits.
- Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), Painter and first President of the Royal Academy. Artist associated with 1413 portraits, Sitter associated with 38 portraits.
Strikes, contract breaking and worker intimidation prompt the passing of a new Anti-Trade Union Combination Act to the dismay of economist John McCulloch, MP Joseph Hume and radical Francis Place who had worked for the repeal of the previous year. Catholic Relief Bill is rejected by the House of Lords.
Art and science
Construction of Thames Tunnel begins under the direction of Marc Isambard Brunel.Stockton to Darlington Railway, the world's first passenger system, opens.William Hazlitt publishes The Spirit of the Age
; twenty-five pen-portraits of his contemporaries in the world of literature, philosophy and politics.
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony
premieres in London. John Quincy Adams is elected President of the United States.