© National Portrait Gallery, London
Mary of Modena
published by Jean or Johannes de Ram Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, circa 1675-1696
13 1/2 in. x 9 7/8 in. (344 mm x 245 mm) plate size; 14 3/8 in. x 10 1/2 in. (366 mm x 268 mm) paper size
Given by Sir Herbert Henry Raphael, 1st Bt, 1916
- Mary of Modena (1658-1718), Queen of James II. Sitter associated with 55 portraits.
James Scott, Duke of Monmouth oversees the suppression of the London weavers' riots which break out in the East End against the introduction of mechanised silk looms. The great fire of Northampton quickly destroys the city. Charles II donates timber for its reconstruction.
Art and science
Charles II founds the Royal Observatory in Greenwich and appoints John Flamsteed the first Astronomer Royal. Royal approval is given to the 'Warrant' design, Sir Christopher Wren's design for the rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral devastated by the Great Fire (1666).
A naval campaign into the Mediterranean under the command of Sir John Narbrough, with protégé, Cloudesley Shovell as lieutenant, blockades the port of Tripoli and successfully halts persistent attacks on English merchant ships by North African pirates. A peace treaty is signed with Tripoli in 1676.