British picture restorers, 1630-1950 - P

A selective directory, to be revised and expanded regularly, 1st edition March 2009. Contributions and corrections are welcome, to Jacob Simon at

Resources and bibliography

[PE] [PH] [PI] [PO] [PR]

Francis Parsons, Queen Square, Ormond St, London 1763, Castle St, Leicester Fields 1765, Great Ormond St by 1769-1772, Albemarle St (‘first door from Piccadilly') 1772-1784, 36 Piccadilly (opposite Green Park Wall) 1784-1799 or later, Piccadilly 1802. Portrait painter, dealer and picture restorer.

Francis Parsons (d.1804) was perhaps born about 1740. ‘Parsons' subscribed to the St Martin's Lane Academy (Bignamini 1991 pp.116, 122 n.54). He exhibited occasionally at the Society of Artists, serving as a director from 1775 and as treasurer in 1776. Parsons painted a number of portraits, of which the best-known is probably that of the engineer, James Brindley, 1770 (National Portrait Gallery). From portrait painting, according to Edward Edwards, ‘he became a picture-dealer and cleaner - a good resource for the invalids in painting' (Edwards 1808 p.286).

Parsons married Hannah Chamberlain at St Pancras Old Church in 1769. He advertised his move from Great Ormond St to Albemarle St in 1772, and then to 36 Piccadilly in 1784 (Public Advertiser 16 December 1772, Morning Post and Daily Advertiser 12 May 1784). He stated that he continued ‘to clean and repair Pictures by a Method that restores the Beauty of the Colouring without injuring the most delicate Teints', also offering various mainly British portraits for sale (Public Advertiser 16 December 1772). Francis Parsons took out insurance with the Sun Fire office on his premises in Albemarle St in October 1779 as a limner and in November 1779 as a portrait painter, and on a dwelling house for his own occupation at 21 Brompton Road, Knightsbridge in April 1783 as a gentleman and in December 1783 as a portrait painter (Guildhall Library: Records of Sun Fire Office, vols 276 no.419079, 278 no.420747, 313 no.476988, 319 no.487528).

In his will, made 27 May 1802 and proved 20 February 1804, Francis Parsons of Piccadilly, left the residue of his estate to his wife and executrix, Hannah, requesting that the ‘pictures of my painting or any other pictures belonging to me' should be sold at auction. He made various specific bequests including a sum of money to John Smart in respect of a failed joint annuity, also making mention of his two shares in the Worcester and Birmingham Canal Navigation. Smart may be the miniaturist, whom Parsons knew through the Society of Artists.

Parsons undertook work at Knole for John Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset. In the Brown Gallery, he cleaned the large set of historical portraits of famous 16th-century personages and ornamented their frames at a cost of 4 guineas each in May 1793: 'For cleaning & Repairing forty old portraits on Pannels . . . and the Frames mended and new Gilt, with Ribbons added to each Frame and label'd with the name and title of each portrait, and the Angle of each painted with ornaments' (see A Guide to picture frames at Knole on the National Portrait Gallery website). Subsequently, in 1796 Francis Parson billed the 3rd Duke for cleaning and repairing certain pictures (Centre for Kentish Studies: Sackville Manuscripts, U269/E426).

For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.

James Partington & Co, 17 Golden Square and 12 Marlborough Row, Golden Square, London 1859-1864. James & George Partington, 23 Newman St, Oxford St, London 1880-1907, 36 Great Ormond St 1908-1933. Picture liners, restorers and cleaners.

James Partington and William Turner followed John Peel (qv) at 17 Golden Square in 1859, trading as Partington & Co, picture liners, cleaners and restorers until made bankrupt in 1864 (London Gazette 15 March 1864). From 1880, it would seem that James Partington traded with his brother, George.

James Partington (1827-1897) was christened at St Mary Marylebone in May 1827, the son of James and Louisa Partington. In censuses, in 1851 he was at 42 Marshall St, Golden Square, as a picture restorer, age 23, living with his mother Louisa, age 42, and Richard, a greengrocer, age 37 (conceivably his mother's 2nd husband), together with three young brothers, namely Frederick age 9, George age 5, and Charles age 4, in 1861 at 42 Cumberland Market, Regents Park, as an artist, wife Frances, age 31, son John, age 10, in 1871 at 64 Falkland Road, Kentish Town, as a picture cleaner, wife Frances, and son James, age 11, in 1881 at 133 Tufnell Park Road as an artist, with his family including his son James, an artist, age 21, and in 1891 at 165 Huddlestone Road, Upper Holloway, as a picture cleaner, with his wife Frances; his son, James junr, age 31, was living in a separate household on the same premises as a picture cleaner, with wife Alice, age 29. He died in the Islington registration district, age 70, in 1897.

George Partington (b.1845), James's brother, was born in 1845 in the St James Westminster registration district. In censuses, in 1871 he was lodging at 3 Park Terrace, Willesden, described as a smith, age 25, together with his younger brother Charles, a picture restorer, age 24, in 1881 apparently lodging at 11 Riding House St, as an artist, and in 1901 and 1911 at 14 Falkland Road, Kentish Town, as a picture restorer, with his older brother, Frederick, a house painter, and in 1911 also with Frederick's daughter, Louisa Worrall, described as a picture restorer (worker). Charles Partington (1846-1872?) appears to have died young.

James Partington relined and cleaned portraits at Cirencester Park in 1879, including Henry Stone's King Charles I and the anonymous Catherine Lady Bathurst (Bathurst 1908 pp.2, 118).

For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.

Henry Thomas Peach (d.1850?), see John Sheppard

Michael Peacock, 22 Marylebone St, Golden Square, London 1817-1827, 20 Marylebone St 1826-1843. Picture dealer, artist and picture restorer.

Michael Peacock (c.1785-1843) married Rebecca Harris in 1807 at St Martin-in-the-Fields and apparently had three children, all christened at St James Westminster, Frances (christened 1809), Emma Jane (b.1816) and Edwin Charles (b.1820). He was recorded as an artist and picture dealer at 22 Marylebone St in 1817, and he is possibly the Michael Peacock trading in Swallow St as a stationer in 1809 and a broker in 1811. He may have been acquiring pictures at auction as early as 1810 (Getty provenance index). In the 1841 census he was recorded, age 56, as an artist and picture dealer in Marylebone St. In his lengthy will, made 8 July and proved 18 November 1843, Michael Peacock, Gentleman of Marylebone St and of Field Cottage, Haverstock Hill, refers to his wife, Rebecca, two daughters and various other relatives, mentioning his leasehold dwelling house, 20 Marylebone St, and making provision for his collection of pictures to be sold. The sale was held by Foster's on 28 February 1844.

In 1829 Michael Peacock was paid for cleaning and repairing pictures and the purchase of a Gainsborough landscape and portrait for the 3rd Earl of Egremont (West Sussex Record Office: Petworth House Archives, PHA/11,014).

No connection is known to the artist and picture cleaner, Joseph Peacock, or to his son Joseph Peacock junr, both working in Dublin.

Henry Peart, parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields, London by 1676-1683 or later, Pall Mall, next the Royal Oak 1687. Portrait painter and copyist, picture restorer.

Henry Peart (c.1637-1697/8) trained under Francis Barlow and then under ‘Stone', presumably Symon Stone (qv), according to Bainbrigg Buckeridge's account, published in 1706 (Buckeridge 1706 p.451). Buckeridge gave his name as Paert, a form not otherwise found in early documentation. Buckeridge identified Peart's talent as seemingly for copying, in particular noting that he copied many history pieces in the Royal Collection. Peart was appointed Mender of Pictures, 1 October 1672, following on from Symon Stone, a post in which he was succeeded by A. Hobrafoth in 1682 (Bucholz 2006).

As a painter of the parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields, age about 39, he married Elizabeth Carr in 1676 at St Paul Covent Garden, and had three children christened at the church of St Martin-in-the-Fields, Elizabeth (b.1678), Henry (b.1681; presumably died young), and another Henry, christened 1683. George Vertue records that the artist lived in Pall Mall at one stage (Vertue vol.4, p.40), which is confirmed by an advertisement by Henry Peart, Pall Mall, next the Royal Oak, in 1687 concerning the theft of silver cutlery (London Gazette 4 August 1687). Buckeridge gives his date of death as 1697 or 1698.

Elizabeth, Countess of Northumberland, widow of the 11th Earl, made payments for portrait copies to ‘Mr Pert', presumably Henry Peart, in her yearly accounts for 1678 and 1679 (Millar 1955 p.256). John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, paid him for copying family portraits in 1690 and 1693 (Hervey 1894 pp.159-60), calling him ‘Henry Pert' on the first occasion, and then ‘Henry Peart'. Following Peart's death, his widow sold Lord Bristol a collection on 14 June 1700 (Waterhouse 1988 p.215). Peart's son, Henry, worked as a copyist in East Anglia (Waterhouse 1981 p.271), and produced a copy of one of his father's portraits for Lord Bristol in 1731 (Hervey 1894 p.163).

Three portraits from West Horsley in Surrey, depicting Lord Capel, Lord Northampton and Sir William Compton (National Portrait Gallery), have a good claim to be by Henry Peart and may have been painted for Sir John Nicholas (see Piper 1963 pp.52, 79, 254).

Sources: George John Armytage (ed.), Allegations for Marriage Licences Issued by the Vicar-general of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 1669 to 1679, Publications of the Harleian Society, vol.34, 1892, p.164 (with age at marriage). For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.

John Peel, 7 Naylors Yard, Silver St, Golden Square, London 1822-1834, 17 Golden Square 1832-1843, 17 & 18 Golden Square 1844-1858, 12 Marlborough Row as carver and gilder 1849-1851. Artist, picture liner and restorer, picture framemaker and picture dealer, from 1849 also carver and gilder.

In a discussion of picture lining it was stated that ‘Peel of Golden-square has obtained quite a European reputation for the extraordinary skill with which this necessary and often very difficult process is effected (‘Pictures and Picture-dealers', New Monthly Magazine and Universal Register, 1841, p.447, accessed through Google Book Search). Subsequently, in 1845 in Robert White's translation of François Xavier de Burtin's Treatise on the Knowledge Necessary to Amateurs in Pictures, it was claimed by White that ‘No person can surpass the London liners, one of whom, Mr. John Peel, of Golden Square, is too well known for the excellence of his work to need any encomium here'.

John Peel (c.1785-1858) was born in Cumberland according to the 1851 census. He was first listed in London directories in 1822 as ‘picture liner, stretching and picture frame maker' (Underhill), sometimes appearing as an artist in the mid-1830s. He showed Gainsborough's The Morning Walk (National Gallery) on his premises at 17 Golden Square before the picture was unsuccessfully offered for sale at Foster's auction room (The Times 4 August 1834). In the records of the Sun Fire office he appears at 17 Golden Square as a picture dealer in 1838 (Guildhall Library: Records of Sun Fire Office, vol.559 no.1281621). His relationship with Joseph Peel, who traded as a picture dealer and restorer at 194 Strand from 1834 until he was made bankrupt in 1841 (London Gazette 17 December 1841), remains to be established; in 1841 Joseph Peel, whether the same man or not, was listed as a picture restorer at 4 Newall's Buildings in Manchester.

In censuses, he was recorded as an artist in Golden Square in 1841 and as a picture restorer at 17 Golden Square in 1851, age 64, with his wife Mary. He held an account with the artists' suppliers, Roberson, from 17 Golden Square in 1850 (Woodcock 1997). John Peel of Golden Square and Hayling Island, Hants and late of Cockermouth, Cumberland, died in 1858 at the age of 73 (The Times 1 June 1858). His collection of paintings was sold by Phillips on 6 July 1858. He was followed at 17 Golden Square by James Partington and William Turner, trading as Partington & Co (qv), picture liners, cleaners and restorers.

Restoration work: Peel's stamp is found impressed on the stretchers of pictures he lined, usually taking the form, I. PEEL LINER,/ 17, GOLDEN SQRE, as found for example on Samuel Drummond's Francis Place (National Portrait Gallery).

Peel repaired Leighton's Cimabue's Madonna carried in procession, 1856 (Oliver Millar, The Victorian Pictures in the Collection of her Majesty the Queen, 1992, p.161). Whether for the collector, William Holwell Carr or for the National Gallery itself, Peel lined Gaspard Dughet's Landscape with a Shepherd and his Flock and its pair, Landscape with Buildings in Tivoli, both of which bear his stamp (National Gallery, see Wine 2001 pp.152, 156). Several pictures at the Wallace Collection were treated by Peel, from their stretcher stamps, I.PEEL/ LINER or I. PEEL LINER, including Jan Hackaert's The Wooded Banks of a River, Canaletto's Venice: the Canale di S.Chiara and the Canaletto studio Venice: a Regatta on the Grand Canal (Ingamells 1985 p.233, 242, Ingamells 1992 p.133).

John Peel was in correspondence with the Daubuz family concerning the purchase and cleaning of pictures, c.1849-53 (Cornwall Record Office: Daubuz Family Papers, X230/34).

John Peeters, Antwerp to 1685, London 1685-1727. Drapery painter, portrait painter and restorer.

Jan Pieters (c.1667-1727) from Antwerp was generally known in England as John Peeters or John Peters. George Vertue knew him well, having learnt drawing from him, and it is Vertue's notebooks that provide the fullest account of Peeters and his work (Vertue vol.3, p.33). Vertue described him as a ‘propper lusty man of a free open temper, a lover of good company & his bottle'. According to Vertue, he was born in Antwerp and studied under Eckart, a history painter, before coming to London in 1685, when he was about 18. He was recommended to Sir Godfrey Kneller, becoming his pupil and then his drapery painter until about 1712. ‘Peeters. Painter' was a member of the Rose and Crown Club of artists, apparently in about 1724 (Bignamini 1991 pp.54, 59 n.54). He died in London in September 1727.

According to Vertue, writing soon after his death, ‘Peeters' began mending and repairing pictures after leaving Kneller's studio in 1712. He was often named ‘Doctor' for his talent in repairing pictures. In a later note in 1731, Vertue recorded that ‘Mr Peeters' was thought to have repaired and painted over parts of the face of a picture of Lord Bacon at Gorhambury, attributed to Paul Van Somer (Vertue vol.4, p.16; both ‘Walton' and Collivoe apparently also worked on this picture). Many years later in 1758, William Hogarth described him as ‘old Peters famous for Old Picture making' (Ronald Paulson, Hogarth, vol.3, 1993, p.223).

Sources: J. Douglas Stewart, book review, Burlington Magazine, vol.120, 1978, p.765. For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.

René Pelletier, London, active 1689-1726. Mounter.

See ‘British picture framemakers' (forthcoming edition), on the National Portrait Gallery website.

Westby Percival-Prescott (1923-2005). Picture conservator, curator, painter, specialist in old master painting techniques; created department of conservation at National Maritime Museum.

Not included here since outside the scope of this directory, but see obituaries, David Bomford, Independent 26 February 2005; The Times 15 March 2005. His archive at the Hamilton Kerr Institute consists mostly of paint samples of linseed oil paint formulations that have naturally aged.

Thomas Philipe, Bull Turnpike (2nd door, opposite Tron church), Edinburgh 1770, ?France and Holland 1771?, back of the Theatre, Edinburgh 1773, Theatre Row, Edinburgh 1774-1775, Calton Hill, Edinburgh 1776, New St, Edinburgh 1777, Theatre Row, Edinburgh 1778, Princes St, opposite the Register House, Edinburgh 1780-1781, London by 1784, Warwick St, Golden Square (adjoining the chapel), London 1798-1817, 22 Golden Square 1799-1811. Printseller and bookseller, dealer in prints and drawings.

By his own testimony, Thomas Philipe was in business by the late 1760s (see below). It is suggested here that the Thomas Philipe who traded in Edinburgh in the 1770s and early 1780s as a printseller may be the individual who was active in London from 1784 or earlier. Further research is needed on Philipe's life and work. His name is sometimes found in other spellings (Philips in 1773, Philipes in 1780, Phillips after 1798).

On 18 December 1770, Thomas Philipe wrote to Sir James Clerk lamenting the lack of subscribers following on his advertisement for engraving 'the plans'; he refers to being soon in London and leaving in about two months so that he could spend some time in the summer in France and Holland (National Archives of Scotland, GD18/5119, Clerk of Penicuik papers). He also refers to his recently published catalogue of prints for sale, ‘At his shop second door of the Bull Turnpike, opposite the Tron-church', corrected in manuscript to the date, 19 December 1770 (example in Clerk of Penicuik papers, National Archives of Scotland, GD18/4681).

Thomas Philipe (?c.1740-1816) would seem to be the individual who married Ann Clift at St Paul Covent Garden in 1784. In his lengthy will, made 10 February and proved 27 May 1816, Thomas Philipe, print merchant of Golden Square, bequeathed much of his estate to his second wife, Maria Francisca Walburga Philipe. Following his death, his paintings, prints and books of prints were auctioned in three sales in 1817 and 1818, and his engraved copperplates and accompanying impressions in 1822 (Morning Chronicle 17 February 1817, 5 June 1822).

Thomas Philipe was called in by the Trustees of the British Museum in 1806 following the discovery of the theft by Robert Dighton of important prints from the museum's collection, including many by Rembrandt. On 13 December 1806, Thomas Philipe issued a final report that provides some idea of the considerable nature of the theft. He made recommendations for the future care of the collection and offered his own services, stating that ‘I have been conversant in the subject full fifty years, first as an amateur in the early part of my life, and afterwards, when obliged by the loss of hearing to relinquish the profession I was bred to, as a dealer, in which quality I have carried on business to a considerable extent for near 40 years with every possible opportunity of experience'. It would seem, therefore, that he had been in business since the late 1760s and had been collecting as early as the mid-1750s, and so probably to have been born c.1740 or even before.

Philipe was then employed by the British Museum at the rate of a guinea a day to secure the collection of prints by pasting them down in new albums; by 1810 he had completed some 83 albums by tipping prints onto the album pages (Joanna Kosek, Conservation Mounting for Prints and Drawings: A manual based on current practice at the British Museum, 2004, p.10).

As a dealer, he supplied old master drawings to William Roscoe in 1811 (Annual Report and Bulletin of the Walker Art Gallery, vol.5, 1975, p.50).

Sources: Lugt vol.1, p.457, vol.2, p.356; Scottish Book Trade Index (SBTI) - National Library of Scotland; Griffiths 1996 pp.11, 277-88 (for the 1806 theft from the British Museum and the work undertaken by Philipe). For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.

Philiot, see Christopher Cock

Jan Pieters, see John Peeters

Raffaelle Pinti, 8 Brewer St, Soho, London 1851, 20 Charles St, Middlesex Hospital by 1855-1857, 7 Onslow Terrace, Lorimer Road, Walworth 1861, 46 Berners St, Oxford St 1862-1863, 22 Howland St, Fitzroy Square 1864-1866, 46 Berners St 1867-1881, 36 Gerrard St, Soho 1881. Artist, picture dealer and picture restorer.

Raffaelle or Raphael Pinti (c.1826-1881), artist, connoisseur, art dealer and picture restorer, was born in Italy, whether at Naples as recorded in the 1871 census or near Rome as stated in his obituary (The Times 11 August 1881). As a young man, Pinti worked as a picture cleaner in Rome until ‘obliged to leave for extreme liberal opinions', perhaps in 1848. Our knowledge of this episode comes from a record made by Florence Compton, sister of Charles Compton, later 3rd Marquis of Northampton, who met Pinti while he was on the Grand Tour, 1845-8, and then helped Pinti set up as a picture cleaner in London (Ranise 2007 pp.17-18; Anderson 1994 p.20).

Pinti was recorded as a portrait painter, reportedly age 30, at 8 Brewer St in Soho in the 1851 census. His daughter, Gilbertta Saffo Pinti, was born in 1854. As an artist and dealer in pictures of 7 Onslow Terrace, he was made bankrupt in 1861 (London Gazette 22 November 1861). This setback did not stop him from developing a significant position in the London art world with wide-ranging contacts. He has been described as C.A. Howell's partner in 1872 (Gail S. Weinberg, 'D.G. Rossetti's ownership of Botticelli's 'Smeralda Brandini', Burlington Magazine, vol.146, 2004, pp.24-5). Apparently he was disliked by Sir John Charles Robinson, who in 1872 thought his appointment to the National Gallery ‘would inevitably lower the character of the institution' (Ranise 2007 p.25). In directory listings he generally appears as Raphael from 1856 until 1876 when he reverted to using Raffaelle.

In census records, Pinti was listed in 1871 in Brixton as an artist, age 43, with wife Ellen, and daughter. His wife died in 1880. In 1881 he was recorded, age 55, at 36 Gerrard St, Soho, lodging in the home of Albert Weckster. He died on 30 July 1881, age 55. His personal estate, as an artist and widower, late of 28 Langham St, was valued at £2,100; administration of his estate was granted on 22 August 1881 to one of his creditors, Giovanni Sciarretta of 26 Berners St, an artist and restorer (information from Lorne Campbell). There was a case in chancery, mentioned in advertisements for creditors to submit claims on his estate (The Times 16 November 1881, London Gazette 22 November 1881). A sale was held of Pinti's Italian and other pictures, sculpture and carved picture frames in May 1882 (The Times 5 May 1882).

Activities as a restorer and dealer: Pinti was among the restorers chosen by Richard Redgrave, from 1856 Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, to work on paintings in the Royal Collection (Millar 1977 p.189). In 1861 Pinti restored Palma Vecchio's Sacra Conversazione and in 1863 cleaned Lorenzo Lotto's Andrea Odoni, revealing the signature and date; in 1865, Pinti and Morrill (qv) treated the Giulio Romano workshop Mermaid feeding her young and in 1867 Pinti restored Titian's Jacopo Sannazaro and removed panel enlargements to Andrea del Sarto's Virgin and Child (Shearman 1983 pp.10, 131, 145, 179, 251).

At the National Gallery, Raffaelle Pinti enjoyed an easy relationship with the director, Sir Charles Eastlake, who took a flexible attitude to his hours of work in 1860 and who noted meeting him later the same year in Milan when Pinti was on his way to Naples (National Gallery Archive, NG5/328/5 and 5/139/5). Pinti undertook extensive restoration work for the Gallery from 1858 until 1871 (when the annual purchase grant was suspended due to the acquisition of the Peel collection), and then more occasional work until 1878.

Following the National Gallery's acquisition of part of the Eduard Beaucousin collection, Pinti restored various pictures for £37.16s in 1860, apparently including Bronzino's Allegory of Venus and Cupid, in which he is thought to have touched out some of the more sensuous elements (Anderson 1994 p.20). When the Wallerstein collection was given to the Gallery by Queen Victoria, Pinti was paid £102.18s in 1863 for restoring 25 of the pictures (see National Gallery Archive, NG13/1/3, for this and subsequent payments).

Pinti restored other National Gallery acquisitions, including Paris Bordone's Portrait of a Young Woman in 1861 (Penny 2008 p.46), Giovanni Bellini's Agony in the Garden for £25 in 1863, Vincenzo Foppa'a Adoration of the Kings in 1863, Sassoferrato's Virgin and Child for £18.18s in 1864, Hans Memling's Sts John the Baptist and Lawrence in 1865 and Justus of Ghent's Rhetoric and Music in 1866 (National Gallery Technical Bulletin, vol.22, 2001, p.18; Campbell 1998 pp.274, 362). He treated numerous other Italian paintings between 1863 and 1870, including Boccaccio Boccaccino's Christ carrying the Cross, Lorenzo Lotto's Agostino della Torre with his son for £10, Marco Marziale's Circumcision (retouched in watercolour) and his Virgin and Child enthroned with Saints, Giovanni Batista Moroni's The Tailor for £10.10s and his Leonardo Salvagno(?) and Andrea Previtali's Virgin and Child with supplicant and St Catherine for £15.15s (Penny 2004 pp.18, 52, 62, 107, 236, 247, 287).

According to the restorer, Henry Thomas Schäfer (qv), who claimed to have worked for him for 12 years, Pinti treated Vincenzo Catena's Warrior adoring the Infant Christ and Andrea del Sarto's Portrait of a young man at the National Gallery (see Schäfer's booklet, Notes on the Cleaning, Restoration and Preservation of Paintings, copy in National Portrait Gallery subject notes).

As a picture restorer, Pinti worked for various private collectors. He was employed by Austen Henry Layard for cleaning and restoring paintings in London, sometimes working in a room at the National Gallery (Penny 2004 pp.373, 376, 377). An example is the portrait attributed to Gentile Bellini, Sultan Mehmet II, restored about 1866 (National Gallery Technical Bulletin, vol.22, 2001, p.84, n.13). He sold various pictures to Charles Compton, 3rd Marquis of Northampton (see above) and put them in order, 1864-77 (Ranise 2007 pp.18-19; Anderson 1994 pp.20). He was consulted in 1876 concerning Sir James Thornhill's chapel fresco at All Souls, Oxford (John Sparrow, 'An Oxford Altar-piece', Burlington Magazine, vol.102, 1960, p.6).

As a dealer and connoisseur, Raffaelle Pinti's activities appear to have been wide-ranging. He sold various pieces to the South Kensington Museum. In 1868 Pinti commissioned the Florentine artist, Antonio Ciseri, to paint a replica version of his Transport of the Body of Christ (Roberta J.M. Olson, Ottocento. Romanticism and Revolution in 19th century Italian Painting, New York, 1992, p.177). Pinti played a major part in the dispersal of the collection of Guglielmo Lochis from Bergamo in 1874 (Ranise 2007 pp.21-3). He also sold pictures and works of art to George Salting, 1877-81, receiving payments totalling £2085, with further payments of £160 being made to Sciarretta, his executor (Guildhall Library, MS 19472/1-2).

Sources: Jaynie Anderson, ‘A ‘most improper picture': transformations of Bronzino's erotic allegory', Apollo, vol.139, February 1994, pp.19-28, drawn to my attention by Carol Plazzotta; Giovanna Brambilla Ranise, La Raccolta Dimezzata: Storia della Dispersione della Pinacoteca di Guglielmo Lochis (1789-1859), Bergamo, 2007; extensive biographical information kindly supplied by Lorne Campbell. For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.

Arthur Pond, Covent Garden Piazza, London 1727-1735, Great Queen St 1735-1758. Portrait painter, print publisher and seller, picture dealer and picture restorer.

Apart from his work in portrait painting in crayons and oils, print publishing and picture dealing, Arthur Pond FRS, FSA (1701-58) also undertook and arranged picture restoration work for his patrons in the 1730s and 1740s, and restored wall paintings at the new British Museum in the years immediately before his death in 1758.

From 1735 to 1750, he generally earned between £10 and £35 a year from restoration work, contracting out the more difficult picture lining to the colourman, David Bellis (Lippincott 1983 pp.84-5, 117). Pond restored two Claudes belonging to Lord James Cavendish in 1738, a Salvator Rosa and a Wouwermans for Peter Delmé in 1746 and a Poussin for Horace Walpole in 1747. He also varnished works by Carlo Maratta and Cignani for Henry Hoare in 1749 (Lippincott 1983 p.117, Lippincott 1991 pp.286, 308).

Other clients who paid him for cleaning, lining or restoring paintings, in chronological order, included Mr Hanmer, Mr Woolfe and Lord King in 1735, Sir Thomas Peyton in 1737, General James Dormer in 1738, Viscount Windsor, William Wollaston MP, Sir Thomas Hanmer MP, Dean John Lynch and Mr Bateman in 1739, General James Sinclair MP, Sir John Philips, John Bucknell and Norris Bertie MP in 1744, Mr Craghead, Mr Parmenter and Dr Charles Chauncey in 1745, General James Sinclair again, Dr Richard Mead, Hans Stanley MP and Mr Hagen in 1746, the Countess of Hardwick and Colonel Hatton in 1747, Viscount Parker, Lady Ravensworth and Francis Whithed MP in 1748, Lady Ravensworth again, John Windham Bowyer, Francis Whithed again, Christopher Batt and Richard Houlditch in 1750 (Lippincott 1991, see index by name).

In 1756 Pond undertook work at Montagu House, the home of the British Museum. He restored the wall paintings by Charles de la Fosse on the staircase and perhaps also the saloon ceiling, at a cost of £365 (Croft-Murray 1970 p.320, David M. Wilson, The British Museum: A History, 2002, p.26).

Sources: Louise Lippincott, Selling Art in Georgian London: The Rise of Arthur Pond, 1983, especially pp.32, 56, 84-5, 117. For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.

James Portch, 23 Castle St, Leicester Square, London 1827-1828, 31 Newman St, Oxford St 1830-1840, 17 Rathbone Place, Oxford St 1841-1845, 26 Princes St, Cavendish Square 1846-1879, 37 Duke St, Manchester Square 1880-1883. Fancy stationer manufacturer, manufacturer of screens, white wood articles, leather goods etc, later print and drawing mounter, picture framemaker and printseller.

James Portch (b. c.1800) was listed as a screen and card rack maker in 1827 and as a pasteboard ornament manufacturer in 1830. In the 1846 directory, he was offering various services including ‘fans made & repaired... drawings & prints mounted or varnished'. In censuses he can be found as a fancy stationer, in 1841 at 17 Rathbone Place, age 42, with wife Jane, and two sons and a daughter, and in 1851 with his wife at 26 Princes St, age 51, born Gibraltar.

On his trade label from 26 Princes St, describing himself as a print and drawing mounter, Portch advertised, 1846 or later, 'Architect's Plans & Drawings Mounted. Drawings Mounted for the Album & Folio. Framing and Glazing. French Mounts in great Variety. Port Folios. Book Binding.' (labelled frame at Grimsthorpe Castle, Lincolnshire).

William Mailes Power 1885-1900, W.M. Power & Co Ltd 1900-1901, W.M. Power 1902-1913, W.M. Power Ltd 1914-1925, W.M. Power 1926-1927. Westminster, London. Carvers and gilders, picture framemakers, picture and print restorers.

For William Mailes Power (b.1860), see British picture framemakers on the National Portrait Gallery website. He advertised in The Year's Art from 1910 as 'Picture and print cleaner and restorer, dealer and expert', offering a 'pamphlet on the restoration of pictures'.

George Priest, 31 Navigation St, Birmingham 1849-1865. Artists' colourman and picture liner.

For George Priest (c.1816-1865), see British artists’ suppliers on the National Portrait Gallery website. Priest's canvas mark has been found on Andrew Deakin's Near Shifnal, 1855, stamped, ‘G. PRIEST/ PICTURE LINER &c/ 31 Navigation St. Birmm./ ARTISTS JOINER &/ General Dealer in Materials./ Wholesale & Retail' (Christie's South Kensington, 11 March 1999, lot 118).

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