British artists' suppliers, 1650-1950
A selective directory, to be revised regularly, 1st edition 2006, 2nd edition 2008, 3rd edition October 2011 (*revised entry, **new entry). Contributions and corrections are welcome, to Jacob Simon at firstname.lastname@example.org.
3rd edition October 2011, researched and written by Jacob Simon (1st edition 2006, 2nd edition 2008), selectively updated March and September 2012, March 2013.
This is a biographical directory of British and foreign firms of artists’ suppliers and colourmen operating in Britain and British firms operating overseas. It focuses on manufacturing and wholesale suppliers and on those retailers mentioned by practising artists or who can readily be identified through advertising in nationally available newspapers and magazines or through the survival of marked products such as canvases, boards, colours and copper plates. For the earlier period before about 1810, artists, booksellers and stationers dealing in artists' materials are listed on a selective basis.
Please send additions and corrections to Jacob Simon at email@example.com.
Format of individual entries
* entry revised for the 3rd edition (2011)
** new entry in the 3rd edition (2011)
Names, addresses, life dates or business dates, nature of business (note 1)
Business history and personal information, product details, marked and documented products used by individual artists and patrons (notes 2 and 3)
Sources: including references to company and other records; for abbreviations see Resources and bibliography.
1. Addresses are taken from annual publications such as trade directories or periodicals except where daily or monthly publications are available. Note that many directories, such as Post Office London directories, were prepared towards the end of the year preceding publication so that a supplier may have begun and ended business a year earlier than indicated here. Overlaps and gaps in the date sequence for addresses reflect the availability of evidence.
2. The terms ‘stencilled’ and ‘stamped’ are sometimes used for products marked by the supplier. Many canvases were stencilled, as is clear from the breaks in letters such as 'O'; some early and late canvases appear to have been stamped. The term ‘marked’ embraces stencilled, stamped and labelled products.
3. Cross references to other artists’ suppliers are indicated by adding ‘(qv)’ after the relevant name, except in the case of the six most common businesses: Ackermann, Newman, Reeves, Roberson, Rowney and Winsor & Newton.
4. References to marked canvases and supports in the National Portrait Gallery collection have been recorded by Dr Tim Moreton. Those in salerooms largely stem from personal observation by Jacob Simon. Those in the Fitzwilliam Museum were recorded by Philip Pouncey as a volunteer at the Fitzwilliam, 1931-3 (‘Marks & labels on the backs of pictures in the Fitzwilliam Museum’, two notebooks held by the Department of Paintings, Drawings and Prints), with information on subsequent acquisitions coming from the Fitzwilliam’s online database. Details of marked canvases in the Ashmolean Museum have kindly been supplied by Jevon Thistlewood. Those in Manchester Art Gallery and York Art Gallery have been noted by Jacob Simon from relevant picture files and conservation records, to which access was kindly allowed by those institutions. Links to canvas stamps and stencils on works in the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, are to the project, ‘Artists’ Coloumen’, courtesy of John Payne (see www.ngv.vic.gov.au/explore/conservation/artists-colourmen). It is hoped to add links to the Courtauld Institute of Art database of suppliers’ stamps and labels, based on the work of Cathy Proudlove, in due course.
5. If you wish to find a particular collection, artist or material, you can use a search engine. Enter your search term, followed by site:http://www.npg.org.uk/research/. You can further narrow your results by adding to the search: “British artists' suppliers”.
Changes in the 3rd edition, 2011
In this 3rd revised and expanded edition, information has been incorporated from online sources, including additional early newspapers, additional birth, marriage and death records for London available through the London Metropolitan Archives, the National Probate Calendar (1861-1941), records of 19th-century immigrants and the 1911 census. Many existing entries, marked with an asterisk, have been revised and some entries subject to significant amendment or expansion, including those for George Blackman and his son, John Calfe, John Capes, C.E. Clifford, Edward Cooper, Max Hübner & Co, William Jones, William Legg, Henry Matley, Clifford Milburn & Co, James and Alexander Miller, Robert Miller, Frederick Moody, Edward Powell, James Rawlinson, George Riley, Roberson’s 19th-century subcontractors, Joshua Rogers, the Rowney brothers’ early years, Smith Warner & Co, James Turner, William Ward and Young & Marten. Information has also been added from Board of Trade records relating to the setting up and liquidation of limited liability companies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the Anglo-American Color Co Ltd, Charles Chenil & Co Ltd, the Kensington Fine Art Society Ltd, C.F. Maret & Co Ltd, Meunier & Co Ltd, Lionel Nathan & Co Ltd and E. Wolff & Son Ltd.
New entries have been added for copper and steel plate makers (only plates in the British Museum have been examined), including Francis Torond, Benjamin Whittow, George Harris and William Eastwood, William Hiam, Richard Hughes, Richard Jones, Thomas Large, the Pontifexes, John Seller of Sheffield, and for suppliers of printmaking materials, Hughes & Kimber, Wilfred C. Kimber, Thomas John Lawrence, later T.N. Lawrence & Son, and W.W. Rhind, later W.Y. Rhind. Entries have also been added for the pencil making firms of Banks, Foster & Co and Brookman & Langdon; the paper maker, Thomas Creswick; the copper plate printers, George Beacher and James Lahee; various 18th or early 19th-century colourmen or colour makers, Andrew Walker, Care & Barnhalt of Southwark, George Druke and his widow Sarah, Giovanni Arzone, William Day, Christian Dresch and, outside London, Joseph Bell of Newcastle; the Glasgow chemical manufacturer, Charles Macintosh; the late 18th-century brush supplier, Derveaux; and the 19th-century Staight family of ivory suppliers including tablets for miniatures. A summary entry has also been added on the British connections of the Belgian chemist colourman, Jacques Blockx.
In the March 2013 update, summary entries have been added for some suppliers used by British-based artists when abroad: Aickelin and Biasutti in Venice and Blanchet, Contet, Dagneau, Foinet, Hardy-Alan, E. Mary et fils and Vallé & Bourniche in Paris. With thanks to Kate Lowry and Joyce Townsend for information and acknowledgements to the published work of Stéphanie Constantin, Pascal Labreuche, John Payne and Clotilde Roth-Meyer.
The first edition this directory was prepared in partnership with Cathy Proudlove, whose pioneering work began the process of identifying businesses and addresses. Sally Woodcock has kindly continued to contribute to this directory. Help has also been received from Gallery interns including Eleanor Beyer and Chloe Evans. Information from other sources is acknowledged in individual entries.