The wood grain and panel join can be seen clearly in the x-ray image in the centre, along with the repair in the lower-left corner and the holes around the edges that are probably due to old hanging methods. The painting method is very simple. The bold underdrawing visible in the infrared reflectogram on the right is likely to reinforce a transferred pattern. The lines in the hands, costume and the cross on the orb are much looser and indicate some searching for the final position of these elements.

© National Portrait Gallery, London