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A drawing material, similar in texture and appearance to pastels, made from various soft stones or earths. The three main types are black, red (also called sanguine, and white chalk. They are applied dry to paper and smudge easily so can be blended and mixed. Today processed coloured chalks are produced by mixing the limestone rock used in white chalk with pigments, water, and a binding agent such as gum.

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Allan Ramsay
by Allan Ramsay
NPG 1660

Marie Tussaud
attributed to Francis Tussaud
circa 1842
NPG 2031

Samuel Smiles
by Louise Jane Jopling (née Goode, later Rowe)
NPG 1856

James Anthony Froude
by John Edward Goodall
circa 1890
NPG 1439

Athol Fugard
by Peter Wardle
NPG 6679

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