Literary and classical reference

Gillray’s caricatures were not cheap. They were sold to an educated audience who were aware of the political scene and at the same time were able to decipher the prints’ sometimes complex literary allusions. Literary references ranged from Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels in The King of Brobdingnag and Gulliver (D13104) to Shakespeare: Taming of the shrew : - Katharine & Petruchio : - the modern Quixotte, or what you will (D12416). Classical references are more frequent and typified by The Fall of Icarus (D13044). This shows Lord Temple with disintegrating wings formed from the pens and stationery he was said to have appropriated after leaving government office.

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'Tom Jones, Partridge and the Beggar'
by James Gillray, published by Thomas Macklin
published 14 September 1780
NPG D12285

'Sophia, Honour and the Chambermaid'
by James Gillray, published by Thomas Macklin
published 1 August 1780
NPG D12286

'National discourse'
probably by James Gillray, published by William Humphrey
published 9 August 1780
NPG D12287

'And Adam had power over all the beasts of the earth'
probably by James Gillray, published by William Humphrey
published 9 January 1780
NPG D12288

King George III
by Thomas Rowlandson, published by I. Jones
published 10 December 1781
NPG D12289

King William IV and an unknown woman ('Wouski')
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 23 January 1788
NPG D12290

'Ah, grant a me von letel bite'
by James Gillray, published by William Humphrey
published 1 December 1780
NPG D12291

'Apothecaries - taylors, &c. conquering France and Spain'
probably by James Gillray, published by William Humphrey
published 29 September 1779
NPG D12292

'A meeting of umbrellas'
by James Gillray, published by William Humphrey
published 25 January 1782
NPG D12299

Samuel Johnson ('Old wisdom blinking at the stars')
by James Gillray, published by W. Rennie
published 10 March 1782
NPG D12300

'Dame rat, and her poor little ones'
by James Gillray, published by J. Browning
published 26 March 1782
NPG D12301

'Aside he turn'd for envy, yet with jealous leer malign, eyd them askance'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 12 December 1782
NPG D12302

'The German dancing master'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 5 April 1782
NPG D12303

'Banco to the knave'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 12 April 1782
NPG D12304

'Britania's assassination. Or the Repulicans amusement'
by James Gillray, published by Elizabeth d'Achery
published 10 May 1782
NPG D12305

'Rodney introducing de Grasse'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 7 June 1782
NPG D12306

'Monuments lately discovered on Salisbury Plain'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 15 June 1782
NPG D12309

'Gloria Mundi, or - the Devil addressing the sun'
by James Gillray, published by William Humphrey
published 22 July 1782
NPG D12310

'The Jubilee'
by James Gillray, published by Elizabeth d'Achery
published 2 August 1782
NPG D12311

Edmund Burke ('Cincinnatus in retirement')
by James Gillray, published by Elizabeth d'Achery
published 23 August 1782
NPG D12313

'Jove in his chair'
by James Gillray, published by Elizabeth d'Achery
published 11 September 1782
NPG D12315

Sir Francis Buller, 1st Bt ('Judge Thumb')
by James Gillray, published by William Humphrey
published 27 November 1782
NPG D12316

Queen Elizabeth I ('The great and glorious days of Queen Bess')
by Unknown artist, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 30 June 1781
NPG D12319

'The discarded viceroy silenced' (Charles James Fox and two others)
by James Gillray, published by Elizabeth d'Achery
published 22 May 1782
NPG D12320

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