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Rye House Plotters


27 People in sitter grouping:

In 1683, a group of men conspired to assassinate King Charles II and his brother, James, Duke of York and encourage a subsequent uprising. Individuals including founding Whig party member, Anthony Ashley-Cooper and the Philosopher John Locke were implicated. The attack was set to take place near the Rye House at Hoddesdon in Hertfordshire, as the King and his brother returned from Newmarket. Due to a fire which had destroyed half of Newmarket, the King and his brother returned earlier than expected and the plot never took place. The backdrop to the conspiracy was the anti-Catholic sentiment which had grown among parliamentary members after the Restoration of the Monarchy under Charles II. The recent discredited 'Popish Plot' of 1678, had stirred fear among Protestants and brought an end to the Whig party. There has been much speculation surrounding the details of the plot, including who was involved and how realised the plot had been. It none the less resulted in the many arrests, trials and the execution of Elizabeth Gaunt, the last woman to be executed for a political crime in England.

Arthur Capel, 1st Earl of Essex

Arthur Capel, 1st Earl of Essex

1631-1683
Soldier; son of 1st Baron Capel
Sitter in 12 portraits
James Scott, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch

James Scott, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch

1649-1685
Son of Charles II and Lucy Walter
Sitter associated with 42 portraits
George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem

George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem

1645-1689
Judge and Lord Chancellor
Sitter in 14 portraits
John Locke

John Locke

1632-1704
Philosopher
Sitter in 36 portraits
Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury

Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury

1621-1683
Statesman
Sitter in 20 portraits
Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll

Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll

1629-1685
Statesman
Sitter associated with 8 portraits
Sir Thomas Armstrong

Sir Thomas Armstrong

1624?-1684
Army officer
Sitter in 3 portraits
Henry Cornish

Henry Cornish

died 1685
Alderman and merchant
Sitter in 3 portraits
Paul Foley

Paul Foley

1644 or 1645-1699
Speaker of the House of Commons
Sitter associated with 1 portrait
Elizabeth Gaunt

Elizabeth Gaunt

died 1685
Last woman executed for a political offence
Sitter in 1 portrait
John Hampden

John Hampden

1595-1643
Politician and one of the 'Five Members' whose arrest by Charles I sparked the Civil War
Sitter associated with 17 portraits
William Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Escrick

William Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Escrick

circa 1630-1694
Conspirator
Sitter in 3 portraits
Josiah Keeling

Josiah Keeling

active 1679-1691
Vintner; Conspirator
Sitter in 3 portraits
Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield

Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield

circa 1618-1694
Royalist soldier and courtier
Sitter associated with 3 portraits
Sir Patrick Hume, 1st Earl of Marchmont

Sir Patrick Hume, 1st Earl of Marchmont

1641-1724
Lawyer and politician
Sitter in 2 portraits
Matthew Meade (Mead)

Matthew Meade (Mead)

1629-1699
Nonconformist minister of Stepney
Sitter in 4 portraits
John Owen

John Owen

1616-1683
Puritan divine
Sitter in 22 portraits
Sir Francis Pemberton

Sir Francis Pemberton

1625-1697
Judge
Sitter in 11 portraits
John Rumsey

John Rumsey

active 1660-1686
Conspirator
Sitter in 3 portraits
Rachel Russell (née Wriothesley), Lady Russell

Rachel Russell (née Wriothesley), Lady Russell

baptised 1637-1723
Noblewoman and author
Sitter associated with 12 portraits